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Table 2 Clinical Study Characteristics

From: Stem cell therapy for the treatment of early stage avascular necrosis of the femoral head: a systematic review

Study Type n Initial AVN class AVN etiology (# of hips) Treatment protocol
Hernigou et al. [35] Case series 534 Ficat 1-2 steroid (101), ethanol (150), sickle cell (166), not specified (117) Concentrated BMMNC
Wang et al. [9] Case series 50 ARCO 1-2 steroid (25), ethanol (19), idiopathic (6) Concentrated BMMNC
Gangji et al. [2] nRCT 24 ARCO 1-2 steroid (20), ethanol (2), idiopathic (2) Concentrated BMMNC
Sen et al. [14] RCT 51 ARCO 1-2 trauma (17), steroid (20), ethanol 8), idiopathic (2), pregnancy (2), Cushings (2) Concentrated BMMNC
Zhao et al. [8] RCT 97 ARCO 1C-2C trauma (20), steroid (24), ethanol (19), Caisson (11), idiopathic (30) (some patients had more than one etiology) Cultured BMMNC
  1. BMMNC = bone marrow mononuclear cells, n = number of hips, ARCO = Association Research Circulation Osseous classification, nRCT = non randomized control trial, RCT = randomized control trial.