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Table 4 Cox regression analysis showing hazard ratios for long-term mortality after hip fracture

From: High short-term and long-term excess mortality in geriatric patients after hip fracture: a prospective cohort study in Taiwan

Variable* Survivals (%) Deaths (%) Unadjusted HR (CI) p value Adjusted HR*(CI) p value PARP (CI)
Hip fracture    
No 197 (95.2) 10 (4.8) 1.0   1.0   
Yes 142 (74.7) 48 (25.3) 5.4 (2.7-10.7) < 0.001 2.7 (1.3-5.6) 0.007 48.0% (17.5-75.9)
BMI
> 20 45 (64.3) 25 (35.7) 1.0   1.0   
≤ 20 294 (89.9) 33 (10.1) 4.0 (2.4-6.8) < 0.001 2.5 (1.4-4.3) 0.002 42.8% (12.8-53.5)
T-score
> −2.19 183 (95.3) 9 (4.7) 1.0   1.0   
≤ −2.19 93 (75.6) 30 (24.4) 6.1 (2.9-12.9) <0.001 3.3 (1.4-7.8) 0.017 36.2% (11.7-56.2)
Missing 63 (76.8) 19 (23.2) 5.8 (2.6-12.8)   3.3 (1.3-7.4)   
Comorbidity
No 184 (90.6) 19 (9.4) 1.0   1.0   
Yes 155 (79.9) 39 (20.1) 2.3 (1.3-4.0) 0.003 2.1 (1.9-3.6) 0.011 34.8% (8.6-57.4)
ADL difficulty
No 288 (89.4) 34 (10.6) 1.00   1.0   
Yes 51 (68.0) 24 (32.0) 3.4 (2.0-5.7) < 0.001 1.9 (1.1-3.4) 0.017 31.8% (3.1-37.9)
Smoking
No 265 (87.5) 38 (12.5) 1.0   1.0   
Yes 74 (78.7) 20 (21.3) 1.7 (1–2.9) 0.051 2.5 (1.4-4.4) 0.001 19.2%
(6.7-36.1)
  1. HR: Hazard ratio; CI: 95% confidence intervals; PARP: population attributable risk proportion; BMI: body mass index; ADL: activities of daily living.
  2. *Multivariate adjustment for all other significant risk factors in univariate analysis; only significant variables in this model were listed. Coordination abnormality, lower Mini Mental State Examination score, older age, vegetarian diet, and less participation in physical exercise were only significant in univariate analyses.