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Table 1 Covariates representing the patient’s condition before hip fracture

From: High short-term and long-term excess mortality in geriatric patients after hip fracture: a prospective cohort study in Taiwan

Type Covariates
Demography Age, sex, ethnicity, occupation, marital status, living arrangements
  Cancer, heart failure, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, liver disease, Parkinson's disease, osteoarthritis
Medication Antihypertensive, cardiovascular medications, analgesics, anti-diabetes, psychotropics, gastrointestinal, other medications, polypharmacy (≥4 medications)
Health habits Cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, betel nut chewing, leisure time physical activity
Diet and nutrition Vegetarian diet, use of milk, coffee, tea; use of nutritional supplements such as calcium, multivitamin, and glucosamine
Falls and fracture History of fall, history of fall-induced fracture, locations of fracture, place, and time that fall happened
Living environment Building type, floor on which the participant lived, number of stairs in a flight, self-evaluation of stair height, stair lighting, outdoor lighting, green light duration
Physical functions ADL[19]: eating, bathing, dressing, toileting, getting in and out of bed
IADL[20]: preparing a meal, shopping, using a telephone, taking medicine, light and heavy housework
Mobility tasks[21]: bending, walking from room to room, walking up 10 steps, walking a quarter of a mile, grasping, lifting 10 pounds, raising arms over head, unlocking with a key
Hearing and visual ability, finger-nose-finger coordination[22]
Cognitive functions MMSE[23]
Anthropometric Body height, body weight, BMI
Other BMD (T-score)
  1. ADL: activities of daily living; IADL: instrumental activities of daily living; MMSE: Mini Mental State Examination; BMI: body mass index; BMD: bone mineral density.
  2. The 55 covariates were shown in bold type.