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Table 1 Primary and secondary objectives to be investigated in CSP patients

From: Efficacy of a modern neuroscience approach versus usual care evidence-based physiotherapy on pain, disability and brain characteristics in chronic spinal pain patients: protocol of a randomized clinical trial

Primary objectives Longitudinal phase
  - Effect of a modern neuroscience approach on pain compared to usual care evidence-based physiotherapy
  - Effect of a modern neuroscience approach on indices of central pain processing (i.e. widespread cold pain, pressure pain tresholds (PPTs) and conditioned pain modulation) compared to usual care evidence-based physiotherapy
  - Effect of a modern neuroscience approach on functioning compared to usual care evidence-based physiotherapy
Secondary objectives Cross-sectional phase (baseline)
- Relation between brain gray matter structure (cortical thickness) and pain (including symptoms of central sensitization)
- Relation between brain gray matter structure (cortical thickness) and (dysfunctional) motor control
- Relation between pain and motor control
- Associations between pain, functional disability, and physical/psychological correlates of pain and dysfunctioning
Longitudinal phase
- Effect of a modern neuroscience approach on brain gray matter structure compared to usual care evidence-based physiotherapy
- Effect of a modern neuroscience approach on motor control compared to usual care evidence-based physiotherapy.
- Relation between changes in pain, functional disability, and physical/psychological correlates of pain and dysfunctioning
- Proportion of patients that reach therapy success after 3, 6 and 12 months from cross-sectional phase visit
- Factors associated with clinically important changes in primary outcome measures
- Factors associated with poor outcome following treatment
  - Mediating factors for treatment effects
  1. CSP: chronic spinal pain.