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Table 4 Mean, standard deviation and effects of intervention and follow-up on kinetics and kinematics of ankle

From: Effects of strengthening, stretching and functional training on foot function in patients with diabetic neuropathy: results of a randomized controlled trial

Kinetic and kinematic
  Control group Intervention group Intervention effect Follow-up effect
Baseline (a) n = 29 12 weeks (b) n = 29 Baseline (c) n = 26 12 weeks (d) n = 26 24 weeks (e) n = 26 Effect size-b-d(Cohen’s d) pa-b-c-d(interaction) Efect size (Cohen’s d) pc-d-e
Sagittal ankle range of motion of stance phase (°) 22.5 (3.5) 18.9 (4.1) 20.8 (4.9) 20.8 (3.3) 19.6 (2.1) 0.53 (medium) 0.001 0.02 (small)c-d 0.14
  0.31 (small)c-e  
Sagittal ankle angle at the end of propulsion phase (°) -8.4 (5.8) -5.5 (3.9) -7.5 (6.4) -7.5 (4.6) -7.8 (4.2) 0.46 (medium) 0.02 (small)c-d 0.91
  0.05 (small)c-e  
Sagittal peak of extensor moment of ankle ~20% stance phase (%BW.h) -0.8 (0.2) -0.7 (0.3) -0.9ঠ(0.4) -0.7 (0.3) -0.7 (0.3) 0.17 (small) 0.63 0.37 (small)c-d 0.02
  0.45 (medium)c-e  
Sagittal peak of flexor moment of ankle ~80% stance phase (%BW.h) 8.1 (0.7) 8.2 (0.4) 7.9 (0.9) 8.2 (0.9) 8.3 (0.4) 0.09 (small) 0.63 0.25 (small)c-d 0.17
  0.45 (medium)c-e  
  1. condition a is different from b (interaction and time effects, p < 0.001).
  2. condition c is different from d (time effect, p < 0.01).
  3. condition c is different from e in follow-up comparisons.
  4. Letters a, b, c, d and e represent the groups conditions.