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Table 2 Mean, standard deviations and effects of intervention and follow-up on pressure variables

From: Effects of strengthening, stretching and functional training on foot function in patients with diabetic neuropathy: results of a randomized controlled trial

Time-to-peak pressure (% of stance phase)
Foot areas Control group Intervention group Intervention effect Follow-up effect
Baseline (a) n = 29 12 weeks (b) n = 29 Baseline (c) n = 26 12 weeks (d) n = 26 24 weeks (e) n = 26 Effect sizeb-d(Cohen’s d) pa-b-c-d(interaction) Effect size (Cohen’s d) pc-d-e
Heel 17.9 (6.0) 18.1 (5.5) 17.4*‡ (5.4) 19.9*‡ (3.7) 17.7 (4.6) 0.3 (small) 0.03 0.5 (medium)c-d <0.01
  0.1 (small)c-e  
Midfoot 54.2 (14.3) 53.5 (13.6) 51.2 (16.6) 50.5 (15.2) 46.6 (12.7) 0.2 (small) 0.98 0.0 (small)c-d 0.12
  0.3 (small)c-e  
Medial forefoot 81.9 (4.4) 82.1 (2.3) 82.0 (4.6) 81.6 (4.1) 81.7 (3.3) 0.1 (small) 0.52 0.1 (small)c-d 0.69
  0.1 (small)c-e  
Lateral forefoot 80.3 (4.6) 80.7 (3.1) 82.0 (3.7) 80.4* (3.5) 80.3 (3.2) 0.1 (small) 0.01 0.5 (medium)c-d <0.01
  0.5 (medium)c-e  
Hallux 85.8 (5.2) 85.6 (3.6) 85.0 (9.9) 83.4 (10.2) 84.8 (7.0) 0.3 (small) 0.18 0.2 (small)c-d 0.17
  0.0 (small)c-e  
Toes 83.5 (6.0) 83.1 (4.0) 83.2 (9.9) 81.5 (9.8) 82.5 (3.8) 0.2 (small) 0.36 0.2 (small)c-d 0.39
         0.1 (small)c-e  
Center of pressure – mean velocity (m/s)
Heel 0.4 (0.13) 0.4 (0.11) 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.1 (small) 0.30 0.1 (small)c-d 0.44
  0.0 (small)c-e  
Midfoot 0.4 (0.11) 0.5 (0.11) 0.5 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (medium) 0.03 0.2 (small)c-d <0.01
  0.5 (medium)c-e  
Medial forefoot 0.3 (0.09) 0.3 (0.07) 0.3# (0.1) 0.3 (0.1) 0.3# (0.1) 0.0 (small) 0.90 0.3 (small)c-d <0.01
  0.6 (medium)c-e  
Lateral forefoot 0.3§ (0.17) 0.3 (0.11) 0.3 (0.1) 0.2§ (0.1) 0.2 (0.1) 0.3 (small) 0.58 0.4 (medium)c-d <0.01
  0.6 (medium)c-e  
Hallux 0.2 (0.23) 0.2|| (0.27) 0.1|| (0.2) 0.1|| (0.1) 0.2 (0.2) 0.5 (medium) 0.27 0.1 (small)c-d <0.01
  0.4 (medium)c-e  
Toes 0.1 (0.18) 0.1 (0.14) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.1) 0.2 (small) 0.95 0.1 (small)c-d 0.15
  0.3 (small)c-e  
Total 0.3 (0.05) 0.4 (0.04) 0.4 (0.1) 0.3 (0.0) 0.3 (0.0) 0.2 (small) 0.05 0.3 (small)c-d <0.001
         0.7 (large)c-e  
Pressure time integral (kPa.s)
Heel 79.1 (22.3) 79.1 (17.3) 81.0 (26.8) 87.6 (23.8) 77.9 (17.4) 0.4 (medium) 0.11 0.3 (small)c-d <0.01
  0.1 (small)c-e  
Midfoot 42.9* (20.9) 38.8* (20.6) 39.2 (14.7) 42.8 (25.4) 31.7 (9.1) 0.2 (small) 0.03 0.2 (small)c-d <0.01
  0.6 (medium)c-e  
Medial forefoot 90.2 (28.3) 93.8 (20.5) 101.2 (29.9) 110.6†¶ (27.4) 103.7 (25.7) 0.7 (medium) 0.20 0.3 (small)c-d 0.01
  0.1 (small)c-e  
Lateral forefoot 90.9 (24.6) 92.6 (20.5) 92.4 (22.4) 98.7 (24.6) 88.2 (19.7) 0.3 (small) 0.29 0.2 (small)c-d <0.01
  0.2 (small)c-e  
Hallux 48.6 (22.6) 50.6 (19.2) 47.2‡# (21.4) 55.1‡# (19.3) 49.5 (24.6) 0.2 (small) 0.22 0.4 (medium)c-d 0.03
  0.1 (small)c-e  
Toes 48.0 (24.1) 44.5 (22.6) 50.6 (22.9) 55.6 (26.9) 52.6 (21.4) 0.5 (medium) 0.16 0.2 (small)c-d 0.44
         0.1 (small)c-e  
Peak pressure (kPa)
Heel 293.6 (68.4) 305.4 (64.3) 314.1 (88.0) 324.1 (77.6) 293.4 (64.4) 0.3 (small) 0.91 0.1 (small)c-d 0.01
  0.3 (small)c-e  
Midfoot 125.1 (63.6) 113.1 (61.3) 119.5 (43.7) 122.3 (46.5) 91.7 (21.4) 0.2 (small) 0.08 0.1 (small)c-d <0.001
  0.8 (large)c-e  
Medial forefoot 313.4§ (101.4) 328.7 (77.2) 356.3§ (100.1) 370.8§ (89.4) 350.5 (81.9) 0.5 (medium) 0.95 0.2 (small)c-d 0.16
  0.1 (small)c-e  
Lateral forefoot 297.9 (83.9) 307.1 (72.5) 316.8 (79.5) 318.5 (56.4) 291.1 (65.8) 0.2 (small) 0.59 0.0 (small)c-d <0.01
  0.4 (large)c-e  
Hallux 214.8 (69.2) 229.7 (85.1) 206.9 (96.8) 235.2ঠ(84.4) 212.1 (95.4) 0.1 (small) 0.46 0.1 (small)c-d 0.03
  0.0 (small)c-e  
Toes 180.6 (99.6) 173.9 (93.2) 187.1 (84.2) 199.0 (94.8) 185.3 (73.0) 0.3 (small) 0.40 0.16 (small)c-d 0.53
  0.01 (small)c-e  
  1. *different conditions between each other (interaction and time effect p = 0.01).
  2. condition b is different from d (interaction effect).
  3. conditions c d, and e are different from one another in follow-up comparisons.
  4. the different condition from the others in follow-up comparisons (p < 0.01).
  5. §condition a is different from d (time effect, p = 0.04).
  6. ||condition b is different from c and d (group effect, p < 0.01).
  7. #condition c is different from e in follow-up comparisons (p < 0.01).
  8. Letters a, b, c, d and e represent the groups conditions.