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Table 1 BOLD cohort sociodemographic characteristics overall and by healthcare system

From: Back pain in seniors: the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) cohort baseline data

Demographic variable Combined N. CA Detroit Boston
  N = 5239* N = 3164 N = 967 N = 1108
Age, mean (SD) years 73.8 ± 6.9 73.7 ± 6.8 73.8 ± 6.9 73.8 ± 7.1
Sex, N (%)     
Male 1852 (35%) 1154 (36%) 289 (30%) 409 (37%)
Female 3387 (65%) 2010 (64%) 678 (70%) 699 (63%)
Hispanic, N (%) 305 (6%) 270 (9%) 21 (2%) 14 (1%)
Race, N (%)     
Black or African American 797 (15%) 226 (7%) 485 (50%) 86 (8%)
Native American Indian/Alaskan/Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 44 (1%) 40 (1%) 4 (0%) 0 (0%)
Asian 198 (4%) 171 (5%) 18 (2%) 9 (1%)
Caucasian 3843 (73%) 2430 (77%) 432 (45%) 981 (89%)
Other 299 (6%) 246 (8%) 26 (3%) 27 (2%)
Education, N (%)     
Less than high school graduate 314 (6%) 144 (5%) 154 (16%) 16 (1%)
High school graduate or obtained a GED/Vocational, technical/trade school 1450 (28%) 794 (25%) 382 (40%) 274 (25%)
Some college 1275 (24%) 978 (31%) 234 (24%) 63 (6%)
Four year college graduate 1290 (25%) 605 (19%) 89 (9%) 596 (54%)
Professional or graduate degree 894 (17%) 633 (20%) 105 (11%) 156 (14%)
Marital, N (%)     
Married/living with a partner 3191 (61%) 1850 (58%) 451 (47%) 890 (80%)
Separated/divorced 602 (11%) 423 (13%) 147 (15%) 32 (3%)
Never married and presently single 256 (5%) 163 (5%) 69 (7%) 24 (2%)
Widowed 1175 (22%) 716 (23%) 299 (31%) 160 (14%)
Employment, N (%)     
Working full-time/part-time 602 (11%) 367 (12%) 166 (15%) 69 (7%)
Retired (not due to ill health) 4250 (81%) 2535 (80%) 913 (82%) 802 (83%)
Retired or disabled because of ill health 146 (3%) 71 (2%) 12 (1%) 63 (7%)
Other 220 (4%) 177 (6%) 11 (1%) 32 (3%)
Legal representation for back pain, N (%)     
Yes 31 (1%) 23 (1%) 8 (1%) 0 (0%)
No 5196 (99%) 3136 (99%) 956 (99%) 1104 (100%)
Smoking status, N (%)     
Never Smoked 2901 (55%) 1570 (50%) 675 (70%) 656 (59%)
Quit smoking over a year ago 1999 (38%) 1422 (45%) 169 (17%) 408 (37%)
Current smoker/quit less than a year ago 324 (6%) 164 (5%) 121 (13%) 39 (4%)
Days between index visit and baseline assessment, mean (SD) 14.6 ± 5.3 16.0 ± 4.6 16.3 ± 5.3 8.9 ± 2.7
  1. *Numbers vary slightly for items due to slight variation in response rates with overall missing items being less than 1%.
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