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Table 4 Measures and outcome during the course

From: Multidimensional associative factors for improvement in pain, function, and working capacity after rehabilitation of whiplash associated disorder: a prognostic, prospective outcome study

    Admission → discharge (n = 175) Admission → 6 month follow-up (n = 103)
   Norm mean Mean (SD) Mean (SD) ES Mean (SD) Mean (SD) ES
SF-36 Physical functioning 87.3 55.8 (17.7) 67.0 (18.0) 0.63* 55.7 (18.3) 70.5 (18.9) 0.81*
Bodily pain 62.9 21.0 (14.0) 29.5 (15.7) 0.61* 21.4 (14.3) 30.4 (20.9) 0.63*
Social functioning 83.9 42.5 (26.1) 47.0 (25.7) 0.17* 45.3 (25.8) 50.7 (25.9) 0.21
NASS Function - 59.2 (15.2) 62.6 (16.5) 0.22* 59.8 (15.3) 66.1 (18.5) 0.41*
Pain - 17.5 (17.6) 28.3 (22.5) 0.61* 17.7 (19.1) 26.3 (21.2) 0.45*
HADS Depression 81.6 62.3 (19.8) 67.3 (20.5) 0.25* 63.8 (20.4) 66.5 (22.1) 0.13
Anxiety 77.8 61.9 (19.1) 62.8 (20.3) 0.05 63.3 (19.1) 66.2 (21.0) 0.15
CSQ Catastrophizing - 58.9 (18.7) 66.0 (20.5) 0.38* 60.1 (19.2) 66.4 (22.5) 0.33*
Activity level - 62.4 (15.4) 64.3 (15.0) 0.12 64.6 (14.6) 66.4 (14.7) 0.12
Control pain - 44.6 (20.0) 48.1 (20.6) 0.18* 45.0 (19.6) 50.5 (20.5) 0.28*
Decrease pain - 42.1 (18.5) 47.0 (19.7) 0.26* 43.2 (18.1) 46.0 (19.2) 0.15
Work Working capacity (h/w) - 13.3 (13.7) 18.9 (9.6) 0.40* 15.6 (14.2) 7.0 (19.4) 0.61*
  1. Legend: SF-36: Short Form 36. NASS: North American Spine Society cervical spine self-assessment instrument. HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. CSQ: Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Norm: population based normative values. Mean: arithmetic mean. SD: Standard deviation. ES: Effect size. h/w: hours/week. *Significant effects (p < 0.050, Wilcoxon test).