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Table 2 Multivariate regression of change in pain, function, and working capacity at the 6 month follow up (n = 103)

From: Multidimensional associative factors for improvement in pain, function, and working capacity after rehabilitation of whiplash associated disorder: a prognostic, prospective outcome study

  Bivariate Multivariate
Covariate Correlation Partial correlation Explained variance F change Regression coefficient Coefficient’s significance
Pain relief: NASS pain (explained variance: 72.1%)
Constant        -8.114 0.269
NASS Pain Baseline -0.595 -0.734 35.5% 53.570 -0.860 <0.001
NASS Function Change 0.508 0.464 14.8% 28.776 0.615 <0.001
NASS Function Baseline 0.052 0.509 13.8% 36.854 0.665 <0.001
HADS Anxiety Baseline -0.109 -0.311 2.6% 7.243 -0.257 0.008
Sports   Baseline 0.149 0.197 1.5% 4.692 2.510 0.033
Working capacity Baseline 0.328 0.253 1.5% 4.608 0.200 0.034
CSQ Catastrophizing Change 0.348 0.260 1.5% 4.378 0.232 0.039
Smoking    -0.125 -0.193 1.1% 3.519 -5.684 0.064
Functional improvement: SF-36 physical functioning (explained variance: 63.4%)
Constant        30.492 <0.001
HADS Depression Change 0.453 0.461 20.5% 24.976 0.361 <0.001
SF-36 Physical function Baseline -0.436 -0.689 19.3% 30.779 -0.622 <0.001
HADS Depression Baseline 0.028 0.368 12.2% 24.163 0.250 <0.001
SF-36 Bodily pain Change 0.445 0.431 6.6% 14.929 0.303 <0.001
SF-36 Bodily pain Baseline -0.084 0.228 2.3% 5.356 0.202 0.023
Age    -0.148 -0.209 1.4% 3.475 -0.194 0.065
Sports   Baseline -0.046 0.173 1.1% 2.822 1.756 0.096
Working capacity improvement (explained variance: 58.2%)
Constant        -0.358  
Working capacity   Baseline -0.526 -0.686 27.7% 37.166 -0.881 <0.001
NASS Pain Change 0.335 0.538 13.7% 22.493 0.400 <0.001
CSQ Catastrophizing Baseline 0.173 0.243 5.7% 10.142 0.186 0.002
Sports   Baseline -0.054 -0.291 3.7% 7.848 -3.668 0.006
NASS Pain Baseline -0.049 0.208 3.3% 6.195 0.186 0.015
SF-36 Physical function Baseline 0.159 0.282 2.3% 4.600 0.227 0.035
Comorbidities    -0.063 -0.202 1.8% 3.863 -2.184 0.052
  1. Legend: NASS: North American Spine Society cervical spine self-assessment instrument. CSQ: Coping Strategies Questionnaire. SF-36: Short Form 36. HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Admission: baseline score, Change: Change of the score between baseline and follow-up.