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Table 2 Overall post-treatment standardized mean difference (SMD) effect sizes for depressive symptoms from included meta-analyses

From: Effects of exercise on depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic disease: a systematic review of meta-analyses

Reference ES/Participants (No.) SMD (95% CI) Z(p) Q (p) I 2(%) τ2 PI (95%)
Busch et al. (2006)[30]a 6/294 -0.61 (-0.99 to -0.23) -3.12(0.002)* 12.0 (0.04)** 58.4 0.13 -1.74, 0.53
Hauser et al. (2010)[37] 19/870 -0.32 (-0.53 to -0.12) -3.13(0.002)* 37.0 (0.005)** 51.4 0.22 -1.32, 0.68
  1. Notes: No, Number; ES, effect size; SMD, standardized mean difference; 95% CI, 95% confidence intervals; Z(p), Z-value and probability value for Z; Q(p), Cochran’s Q statistic and associated alpha (p) value for Q; I 2 , I-squared statistic for heterogeneity; τ2, tau-squared; PI, prediction intervals, based on a random-effects model; SMD (95% CI) based on random-effects model; Boldfaced values indicate continuous data with non-overlapping confidence intervals; *, statistically significant, p ≤ 0.05; **, statistically significant, p ≤ 0.10; a , original meta-analysis did not pool results as done here, but rather, reported separate subgroup results for aerobic exercise studies meeting the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations[31, 32] (4 studies), those not meeting the recommendations (1 study) and those limited to strength training exercise (1 study).