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Table 1 Gilbert’s scale for evaluation of shoulder function

From: The effect of perinatal brachial plexus lesion on upper limb development

Stage 0 Complete shoulder flail
Stage I Abduction or flexion to 45°, no active external rotation
Stage II Abduction < 90°, external rotation to neutral
Stage III Abduction = 90°, weak external rotation
Stage IV Abduction < 120°, incomplete external rotation
Stage V Abduction > 120°, active external rotation
  1. Evaluation: stage III, IV, V are functionally useful.