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Table 3 Cumulative odds ratios (COR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) from multiple ordinal logistic regressions of the lumbar disk degeneration sum score (in four-class ordinal scale) on body mass index (BMI), physical activity per week and pack-years of smoking

From: Body mass index is associated with lumbar disc degeneration in young Finnish males: subsample of Northern Finland birth cohort study 1986

Explanatory factors Males Females
  N = 230 N = 317
  COR (95% CI) COR (95% CI)
BMI at 16 years (kg/m2; quartiles)   
  I 1.00 1.00
  II 1.44 (0.73–2.84) 0.67 (0.37–1.23)
  III 1.64 (0.83–3.25) 0.99 (0.54–1.81)
  IV 2.35 (1.19–4.65) 1.29 (0.72–2.32)
Physical activity level# (MET hours/week; quartiles)   
  I 1.00 (0.51–1.97) 1.38 (0.76–2.50)
  II 1.00 1.00
  III 1.27 (0.65–2.49) 1.27 (0.69–2.34)
  IV 1.27 (0.65–2.50) 1.52 (0.84–2.75)
Smoking (pack-years*)   
  None 1.00 1.00
  0.01-3.99 1.47 (0.76–2.83) 1.09 (0.65–1.83)
  ≥4.00 2.41 (0.99–5.86) 1.59 (0.67–3.76)
  1. # Metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week calculated from physical activity outside school hours; mean value at 16 and 19 years.
  2. * Years of smoking multiplied by the packs of cigarettes smoked daily.