Skip to main content

Table 2 Physical exposure at the job level (measurements/observations in the field (m) and from videotape analysis (v))

From: Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain

Variable Analyst Worker
Cycle Time (min) • SI definition (v)  
Force • DUE force rating each job • DUE force rating each job (Borg CR-10)
  o Peak force (m)   o Peak force (m)
  o Typical force (m)   o Typical force (m)
• Overall DUE expert force rating1 (v) • Matching force
• Object/tool weight and Center mass offset (m)   o Grip force (m)
• Pushing/pulling force (m)   o Pinch force (m)
    o Thrust force (m)
Repetition • HAL Rating (v)  
• No. of exertions/min (SI) (v)  
• No. exertions/minute at each force level2 (v)  
• Speed of work (SI) (v)  
%Duration of Exertion • % Duration of exertion (SI) (v)  
• Duration per exertion for each force level (s/exertion) (v)  
Exposure/day (hours) • Worker interview(m)  
Hand/wrist Posture • Posture categories3  
  o Wrist flexion: <30°, 30°-50°, >50° (v)  
  o Wrist extension: <30°, 30°-50°, >50° (v)  
  o Ulnar deviation: <10°, 10°-25°, >25° (v)  
  o Radial deviation: <5°, 5°-25° (v)  
• No. of exertions in each category (v)  
• % of cycle time in each category (v)  
• Peak force posture categories (v)  
• Hand/wrist posture each task (SI) (v)  
• Overall SI posture (v)  
Elbow Posture/Forearm Rotation • Extension < 70° and > 135°  
  o No. of exertions (v)  
  o % cycle time (v)  
• Forearm rotation  
  o (Neutral, prone, supine) (v)  
  o % of cycle time with forearm rotation > 45° from neutral (v)  
Grip/pinch • Type of grasp/pinch4 (v)  
• Grip/pinch span (v)  
• % cycle time in each type of grasp/pinch (v)  
Localized Mechanical Compression • Body part  
• Category (Negligible, moderate, severe) (m)  
• No. of exertions (v)  
• % of cycle time (v)  
Hand as hammer • Category (Negligible, moderate, severe) (m)  
  • No. of exertions (v)