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Table 6 Cohort-stratified path regression results; outcome: general health score*

From: Heterogeneity in health status and the influence of patient characteristics across patients seeking musculoskeletal orthopaedic care – a cross-sectional study

   Foot/Ankle Elbow/Shoulder Neck/Back Hip/Knee
   (n = 349) (n = 378) (n = 454) (n = 767)
    Outcome: General Health Score  
Predictors    Beta Coefficients**  
  (95% Confidence Limits)  
Age   0.06 0.02 0.09 0.02
   (−0.09, 0.21) (−0.12, 0.15) (−0.04, 0.22) (−0.08, 0.12)
Sex (ref: Male) Female 1.81 −3.47 3.28 −0.81
   (−2.65, 6.26) (−7.39, 0.45) (−0.77, 7.34) (−3.76, 2.14)
Income (ref: high) Low −4.97 −4.01 −5.11 −5.18
   (−11.42, 1.49) (−9.72, 1.70) (−11.80, 1.57) (−9.72, -0.64)
  Missing −9.28 −3.19 −2.72 −0.06
   (−16.18, -2.39) (−9.38, 3.00) (−6.98, 1.53) (−4.22, 4.09)
Education (ref: >high school) ≤ high school −4.66 −3.17 −2.51 −2.10
   (−9.92, 0.61) (−7.18, 0.85) (−6.59, 1.57) (−5.34, 1.14)
Race (ref: White) Asian −0.07 −0.73 −4.07 −8.45
   (−10.79, 10.65) (−9.34, 7.89) (−12.89, 4.76) (−14.93, -1.98)
  Black −13.75 −6.64 −8.87 −1.07
   (−27.36, -0.14) (−16.26, 2.97) (−18.88, 1.15) (−7.55, 5.40)
  Other −3.47 −0.78 −7.33 2.89
   (−11.28, 4.34) (−6.95, 5.40) (−15.14, 0.48) (−2.90, 8.67)
  South Asian −0.96 −10.35 −11.42 0.21
   (−11.71, 9.79) (−20.16, -0.54) (−20.98, -1.85) (−6.37, 6.78)
Comorbidity Count   −3.27 −5.28 −4.35 −3.29
   (−4.51, -2.04) (−6.47, -4.09) (−5.41, -3.28) (−4.08, -2.51)
Body Mass Index (ref: Normal) Overweight −1.92 −1.30 −0.68 0.62
   (−6.86, 3.02) (−5.64, 3.04) (−5.17, 3.80) (−2.85, 4.10)
  Obese −12.95 −3.47 −5.82 −2.96
   (−18.71, -7.20) (−8.56, 1.61) (−11.12, -0.52) (−6.67, 0.75)
  1. *all health domain scores were simultaneously assessed as dependent variables, with allowance for correlations between health domain scores;
  2. **bolded estimates represent statistical significance (i.e. p < 0.05).