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Table 5 Cohort-stratified path regression results; outcome: mental health score*

From: Heterogeneity in health status and the influence of patient characteristics across patients seeking musculoskeletal orthopaedic care – a cross-sectional study

   Foot/Ankle Elbow/Shoulder Neck/Back Hip/Knee
   (n = 349) (n = 378) (n = 454) (n = 767)
    Outcome: Mental Health Score  
Predictors    Beta Coefficients**  
  (95% Confidence Limits)  
Age   0.19 0.20 0.30 0.13
   (0.06, 0.31) (0.06, 0.33) (0.17, 0.43) (0.03, 0.23)
Sex (ref: Male) Female 1.03 −3.54 −2.70 −1.00
   (−2.83, 4.89) (−7.66, 0.57) (−6.76, 1.35) (−3.97, 1.98)
Income (ref: high) Low −9.37 −8.82 −4.51 −7.40
   (−14.96, -3.79) (−14.80, -2.84) (−11.18, 2.16) (−12.00, -2.80)
  Missing −2.00 −5.34 0.04 −1.87
   (−7.95, 3.95) (−11.88, 1.20) (−4.21, 4.30) (−6.08, 2.34)
Education (ref: >high school) ≤ high school −3.11 −2.74 −4.19 −2.79
   (−7.69, 1.47) (−6.96, 1.48) (−8.27, -0.10) (−6.07, 0.49)
Race (ref: White) Asian 4.39 3.61 6.20 0.96
   (−4.85, 13.64) (−5.42, 12.63) (−2.60, 15.00) (−5.58, 7.49)
  Black −15.41 −2.71 −9.71 6.86
   (−27.14, -3.68) (−12.77, 7.36) (−19.89, 0.47) (0.33, 13.38)
  Other −1.37 −0.59 −2.04 0.32
   (−8.17, 5.44) (−7.07, 5.88) (−9.84, 5.76) (−5.51, 6.15)
  South Asian −3.92 −2.22 1.73 0.26
   (−13.18, 5.35) (−12.51, 8.06) (−7.82, 11.29) (−6.43, 6.95)
Comorbidity Count   −3.55 −3.43 −2.63 −2.32
   (−4.63, -2.48) (−4.68, -2.18) (−3.70, -1.55) (−3.12, -1.53)
Body Mass Index (ref: Normal) Overweight 0.27 3.18 −2.89 1.06
   (−4.02, 4.55) (−1.38, 7.73) (−7.38, 1.59) (−2.45, 4.56)
  Obese −1.71 2.97 −2.82 1.73
   (−6.70, 3.28) (−2.40, 8.33) (−8.12, 2.48) (−2.01, 5.48)
  1. *all health domain scores were simultaneously assessed as dependent variables, with allowance for correlations between health domain scores;
  2. **bolded estimates represent statistical significance (i.e. p < 0.05).