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Table 4 Cohort-stratified path regression results; outcome: physical functioning score*

From: Heterogeneity in health status and the influence of patient characteristics across patients seeking musculoskeletal orthopaedic care – a cross-sectional study

   Foot/Ankle Elbow/Shoulder Neck/Back Hip/Knee
   (n = 349) (n = 378) (n = 454) (n = 767)
    Outcome: Physical Functioning Score  
Predictors    Beta Coefficients**  
  (95% Confidence Limits)  
Age   −0.25 −0.20 −0.34 −0.38
   (−0.45, -0.04) (−0.37, -0.03) (−0.51, -0.17) (−0.51, -0.25)
Sex (ref: Male) Female 5.13 −6.85 −4.06 −6.20
   (−0.96, 11.22) (−11.88, -1.82) (−9.28, 1.17) (−9.93, -2.46)
Income (ref: high) Low −14.29 −10.28 −0.56 −5.42
   (−23.07, -5.50) (−17.61, -2.96) (−9.08, 7.96) (−11.15, 0.30)
  Missing −1.56 −6.34 2.86 0.21
   (−10.99, 7.87) (−14.19, 1.51) (−2.65, 8.37) (−5.05, 5.47)
Education (ref: >high school) ≤ high school −6.59 −5.12 −5.50 −4.28
   (−13.78, 0.60) (−10.28, 0.04) (−10.77, -0.22) (−8.39, -0.18)
Race (ref: White) Asian −3.13 4.47 4.10 0.92
   (−17.80, 11.54) (−6.59, 15.53) (−7.16, 15.35) (−7.31, 9.16)
  Black 3.80 −10.12 −2.21 −0.18
   (−14.83, 22.42) (−22.12, 1.88) (−15.21, 10.79) (−8.31, 7.96)
  Other 5.65 1.17 −5.05 −0.13
   (−5.04, 16.33) (−6.82, 9.16) (−15.19, 5.09) (−7.30, 7.04)
  South Asian −6.46 −6.70 −12.17 −4.17
   (−21.17, 8.26) (−19.29, 5.89) (−24.59, 0.25) (−12.42, 4.08)
Comorbidity Count   −1.10 −3.13 −1.79 −2.61
   (−2.79, 0.59) (−4.66, -1.60) (−3.15, -0.42) (−3.60, -1.62)
Body Mass Index (ref: Normal) Overweight −5.54 2.79 −6.39 −2.90
   (−12.30, 1.22) (−2.78, 8.37) (−12.19, -0.59) (−7.29, 1.49)
  Obese −14.31 −5.09 −9.36 −7.24
   (−22.18, -6.45) (−11.63, 1.45) (−16.22, -2.50) (−11.92, -2.55)
  1. *all health domain scores were simultaneously assessed as dependent variables, with allowance for correlations between health domain scores;
  2. **bolded estimates represent statistical significance (i.e. p < 0.05).