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Table 3 Cohort-stratified path regression results; outcome: bodily pain score*

From: Heterogeneity in health status and the influence of patient characteristics across patients seeking musculoskeletal orthopaedic care – a cross-sectional study

   Foot/Ankle Elbow/Shoulder Neck/Back Hip/Knee
   (n = 349) (n = 378) (n = 454) (n = 767)
    Outcome: Bodily Pain Score  
Predictors    Beta Coefficients**  
  (95% Confidence Limits)  
Age   −0.14 −0.04 −0.13 −0.23
   (−0.31, 0.03) (−0.21, 0.13) (−0.28, 0.03) (−0.34, -0.12)
Sex (ref: Male) Female −0.25 −4.07 −1.33 −5.06
   (−5.46, 4.96) (−9.18, 1.04) (−6.03, 3.37) (−8.27, -1.86)
Income (ref: high) Low −11.42 −4.95 −7.55 −4.41
   (−18.97, -3.88) (−12.38, 2.49) (−15.26, 0.16) (−9.33, 0.52)
  Missing 2.92 5.05 2.85 −1.56
   (−5.15, 11.00) (−3.03, 13.13) (−2.09, 7.78) (−6.07, 2.96)
Education (ref: >high school) ≤ high school −5.58 −4.46 −3.88 −3.58
   (−11.74, 0.58) (−9.70, 0.78) (−8.61, 0.85) (−7.10, -0.06)
Race (ref: White) Asian 1.91 16.07 3.33 2.34
   (−10.65, 14.47) (4.85, 27.28) (−6.85, 13.51) (−4.72, 9.40)
  Black −3.84 −0.87 −5.84 −0.36
   (−19.78, 12.09) (−13.33, 11.60) (−17.46, 5.78) (−7.33, 6.61)
  Other 1.77 2.34 −2.62 2.01
   (−7.37, 10.91) (−5.71, 10.38) (−11.69, 6.45) (−4.21, 8.24)
  South Asian −1.36 0.68 2.61 −2.81
   (−13.95, 11.22) (−12.34, 13.71) (−8.49, 13.71) (−10.00, 4.38)
Comorbidity Count   −1.64 −3.47 −1.95 −1.71
   (−3.09, -0.19) (−5.02, -1.92) (−3.18, -0.72) (−2.56, -0.85)
Body Mass Index (ref: Normal) Overweight −6.47 3.23 −3.60 −4.99
   (−12.25, -0.69) (−2.43, 8.89) (−8.79, 1.60) (−8.76, -1.22)
  Obese −13.27 −6.19 −3.54 −7.12
   (−20.00, -6.54) (−12.82, 0.43) (−9.69, 2.60) (−11.15, -3.09)
  1. *all health domain scores were simultaneously assessed as dependent variables, with allowance for correlations between health domain scores;
  2. **bolded estimates represent statistical significance (i.e. p < 0.05).