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Table 1 Surgical sequence (surgical steps only required only for assisted navigation in italics, navigation-assisted surgical steps underlined, (*) can be done before or parallel to the operation to save time), duration of operation, number of intraoperative X-ray images, necessary fluoroscopy time, significance level p<0.01

From: 2D-fluoroscopic based navigation for Gamma 3 nail insertion versus conventional procedure- a feasibility study

Surgical step Op. time conventional [sec] Op. time navigation-assisted [sec] Significance X-ray images conventional [n] X-ray images navigation-assisted [n] Significance X-ray time conventional [sec] X-ray time navigation-assisted [sec] Significance
Instrument calibration (*)   60.2 ± 9.7        
Fixation of dynamic reference base   53.9 ± 5.5        
Image acquisition   78.4 ± 27.8    2.6 ± 1.1    1.5 ± 0.5  
Guide wire placement for nail insertion 161.8 ± 71.4 79.4 ± 21.6 12.4 ± 5.9   6.6 ± 3.5  
Drilling 31.7 ± 5.8 39.7 ± 13.5        
Nail insertion 67.4 ± 18.6 44.0 ± 8.7 5.0 ± 2.5   2.8 ± 1.7  
Guide wire placement for the femoral neck screw 122.1 ± 57.4 31.6 ± 7.4 9.7 ± 3.4   4.8 ± 2.0  
Drilling for femoral neck screw 22.5 ± 4.8 23.6 ± 5.8        
Calibration of femoral neck screw (*)   81.6 ± 32.4        
Femoral neck screw insertion 74.7 ± 8.8 57.5 ± 9.8 5.9 ± 1.1   3.2 ± 0.6  
Distal locking 77 ± 5.1 77.5 ± 5.4        
Control X-ray 26.3 ± 8.2 34.6 ± 9.5        
Total 583.5 ± 99.2 662 ± 64.9   33 ± 8.8 2.6 ± 1.1 17.4 ± 4.6 1.5 ± 0.5