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Table 1 Participant characteristics and baseline values of variables included in the regression analysis

From: The clinical course over the first year of Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD): pain-related disability predicts outcome in a mildly affected sample

  Mildly affected sample MILD Moderate/severely affected sample MOD/SEV Test of statistical difference between groups
    p-value
Gender (n = 98) (n = 55) .087 (Chi2 = 2.924, df = 1)
 Female 52 (53.1%) 37 (67.3%)
 Male 46 (46.9%) 18 (32.7%)
Age (years) (n = 98) (n = 55) .473 (t = -.72, df = 121)
 Mean (standard deviation) 34.4 (11.4) 35.7 (10.3)
WAD-grade (n = 98) (n = 55) .004 (Chi2 = 8.089, df = 1)
 I 48 (49.0%) 14 (25.5%)
 II 50 (51.0%) 41 (74.5%)
Marital status (n = 95) (n = 54) .158 (Chi2 = 3.685, df = 2)
 Married or cohabitants 50 (52.6%) 37 (67.3%)
 Single 36 (37.9%) 16 (29.1%)
 Living with parents 9 (9.5%) 2 (3.6%)
Education (n = 94) (n = 54) .56 (Chi2 = 7.579, df = 3)
 Elementary school 13 (13.3%) 3 (5.5%)
 High school 46 (46.9%) 25 (45.5%)
 University 35 (37.2%) 27 (50.0%)
Physical activity level before accident (n = 98) (n = 55) <.001 (Chi2 = 21.2, df = 3)
 ≥5 times/week 18 (18.4%) 22 (40.0%)
 2–4 times/week 39 (39.8%) 23 (41.8%)
 0–1 times/week 41 (41.8%) 7 (12–7)%)
 Never 0 3 (5.5%)
Health status before accident (n = 98) (n = 55) .019 (Chi2 = 9.907, df = 3)
Very good 41 (41.8%) 23 (41.8%)
Good 53 (54.1%) 22 (40.0%)
Somewhat good 4 (4.1%) 8 (14.5%)
Bad 0 2 (3.6%)
Depressed mood before accident (n = 94) (n = 55) .164 (Chi2 = 3.613, df = 2)
Never 77 (78.6%) 14 (73.7%)
Sometimes 17 (17.3%) 4 (21.1%)
Often 0 1 (1.8%)
Previous road accident, but no remaining symptoms (n = 95) (n = 55) .
Yes 9 (9.2%) 12 (21.8%) 036
No 86 (87.8%) 43 (78.2%) (Chi2 = 4.409, df = 1)
PDI (n = 98) (n = 55) <.001
Median (IQR) 3 (4) 21 (12) (z = -8.2)
Pain intensity NRS 0–10 (n = 94) (n = 55) <.001
Median (IQR) 2 (7) 5 (4) (z = -9)
SES (n = 97) (n = 55) <.001
Median (IQR) 187 (20) 162 (35) (z = -7.4)
TSK (n = 97) (n = 55) <.001
Median (IQR) 26.5 (6) 34 (30) (z = -5.8)
CAT (n = 98) (n = 55) .009
Median (IQR) 2 (20) 7 (19) (z = -2.6)
IES (n = 98) (n = 55) <.001
Median (IQR) 23 (14) 35 (28) (z = -6.4)
  1. PDI = Pain Disability Index (0-70), low scores indicate low disability.
  2. Pain intensity (3 items 0-10), low scores indicate low pain intensity, control (1 item 0-10), low scores indicate low control.
  3. SES = Self-Efficacy Scale (0-200), low scores indicate low efficacy expectations.
  4. TSK = The Tampa Scale of Kinesiphobia (17-68), low scores indicate low fear.
  5. CAT = The Coping Strategies Questionnaire (0-36). High scores indicate higher frequency of catastrophic thinking.
  6. IES = Impact of Event Scale (0-75). High scores indicate severe symptoms.