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Table 2 Pain anamnesis: differences between CLBP and CWP (n = 647)

From: Differences between patients with chronic widespread pain and local chronic low back pain in primary care - a comparative cross-sectional analysis

  CLBP CWP p
    Chi-square test Fisher’s exact test Welch’s t-test Mann-Whitney U-Test
Pain in the following areas [no. (%)] n = 484 n = 163     
Head 30 (6.2) 51 (31.3) >0.001 - - -
Cervical spine 161 (33.3) 125 (76.7) >0.001 - - -
Thoracic spine 198 (40.9) 115 (70.6) >0.001 - - -
Lumbar spine 484 (100) 163 (100) - - - -
Sternum 12 (2.5) 15 (9.2) 0.001 - - -
Arm – left 76 (15.7) 141 (86.5) >0.001 - - -
Arm – right 97 (20.0) 148 (90.8) >0.001 - - -
Leg – left 160 (33.1) 140 (85.9) >0.001 - - -
Leg – right 169 (34.9) 145 (89.0) >0.001 - - -
Stomach 67 (13.8) 69 (42.3) >0.001 - - -
Number of pain areas [mean (SD)] n = 484 n = 163 - - - >0.001
  3.0 (1.6) 6.8 (1.5)     
Body mass index [mean (SD)] n = 472 n = 162 - - 0.433 -
  28.1 (5.8) 28.6 (5.9)     
First time of back pain [no (%)] n = 484 n = 163 - - - >0.001
Since > 1 year ago 70 (14.5) 9 (5.5)     
1-2 years ago 41 (8.5) 6 (3.7)     
2-5 years ago 67 (13.8) 20 (12.3)     
5-10 years ago 69 (14.3) 28 (17.2)     
> 10 years ago 237 (49.0) 100 (61.3)     
Back pain frequency [no (%)] n = 480 n = 163 - - - >0.001
Few times per year 40 (8.3) 1 (0.6)     
Few times per month 47 (9.8) 10 (6.1)     
Several times per week 89 (18.5) 21 (12.9)     
One time daily 16 (3.3) 2 (1.2)     
Several times per day 99 (20.6) 27 (16.6)     
Permanent 189 (39.4) 102 (62.6)     
Pain distribution [no (%)] n = 480 n = 163 0.001 - - -
Permanent pain with slight variations 98 (20.4) 42 (25.8)     
Permanent pain with higher variations 142 (29.6) 57 (35.0)     
Pain attacks, between pain free 164 (34.2) 28 (17.2)     
Pain attacks, between pain 76 (15.8) 36 (22.1)     
Duration of pain attacks [no (%)] n = 232 n = 62 - - - 0.013
Seconds/minutes 41 (17.7) 6 (9.7)     
Hours 78 (33.6) 22 (35.5)     
Days 36 (15.5) 12 (19.4)     
Longer than 3 days 39 (16.8) 7 (11.3)     
Longer than 1 week 38 (16.4) 15 (24.2)     
Red flags [no (%)] n = 479 n = 161 0.224 - - -
Positive 89 (18.6) 37 (23.0)     
MPI - social support subscale [mean (SD)] n = 475 n = 141 - - 0.234 -
  4.8 (1.9) 4.6 (1.9)     
Graded Chronic Pain (von Korff Index) [no (%)] n= 447 n = 148 - - - 0.109
0 0 (0) 0 (0)     
1 72 (16.1) 11 (7.4)     
2 109 (24.4) 39 (26.4)     
3 131 (29.3) 50 (33.8)     
4 135 (30.2) 48 (32.4)     
Gut feeling: Will the pain go away? [no (%)] n = 464 n = 156 >0.001 - - -
Yes 228 (49.1) 48 (30.8)