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Table 1 Baseline risk factors by incident hyperuricemia in the ARIC cohort

From: Risk factors for incident hyperuricemia during mid-adulthood in African American and White men and women enrolled in the ARIC cohort study

  No incident hyperuricemia Incident hyperuricemia
Baseline risk factors n = 7,908 n = 304
Male sex 37 49**
Age, years 53.8 (6) 54.3 (5)
African American race 18 33**
High school education or higher 83 73**
Pre-menopause a,b 35 37
Smoking status a   
Current smoker 22 27
Former smoker 31 28
Never smoker 47 45
Diuretic use 12 19**
Hypertension 24 44**
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 6 (1) 6 (1)
HDL cholesterol a   
< 1.03 mmol/L 20 26*
1.03 ≤  HDL ≤  1.55 48 50
> 1.55 32 24
Diabetes 8 11*
Coronary heart disease 3 6*
Congestive heart failure 2 5*
BMI, kg/m 2a   
BMI ≥  35 6 14**
30 ≤  BMI < 35 15 23
25 ≤  BMI < 30 39 45
BMI < 25 40 18
Early adult obesity 3 7**
Weight change from early adult, lb 25 (26) 32 (30)**
Waist-to-hip ratio, quartiles a   
Waist-to-hip ratio ≥  0.97 23 38**
0.92 ≤  Waist-to-hip ratio < 0.97 25 28
0.86 ≤ Waist -to-hip ratio < 0.92 26 22
0.86 ≤  Waist-to-hip ratio 26 12
Categorical alcohol intake, grams/week a   
Abstain 61 63*
0–100 27 24
>100 12 13
Animal fat, grams/day 35 (17) 37 (18)*
Animal protein, grams/day 53 (23) 53 (22)
eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m 2a   
<60 1 4**
60–90 39 40
≥ 90 60 56
Baseline serum urate level, mg/dL 5.3 (1.0) 6.1 (0.78)**
Serum urate level at 3 year follow-up, mg/dL 5.5 (1.2) 7.0 (1.3)**
3-year change in serum urate level, mg/dL 0.2 (0.9) 0.9 (1.3)**
  1. Mean and standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables and percent for categorical variables.
  2. *p-value < 0.05 ; **p-value < 0.001.
  3. ap-value for trend.
  4. bThe number of participants included in analysis was 4,551; men (n = 3,036) and women without known menopause status (n = 625) were excluded from this analysis.