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Table 2 Overview of outcome parameters identified in studies included in review

From: Measures and procedures utilized to determine the added value of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints: a systematic review

   Outcome parameter ICF code[2] Actual or perceived performance Quality of walking Energy cost Cognitive effort Safety Activity level Activities other than walking Prosthetic comfort Other (e.g. health)
Functioning & disability ICF component
“Body”
(comprising “Body functions” and “Body structures”)
walking speed [7, 14, 1618, 20, 21, 24, 30, 35],[39] b770 a        
(a)symmetry [7, 16, 18, 29, 36, 40, 41] b770 a        
stance phase duration [15, 35, 39, 41] b770 a        
joint angles [15, 17, 18, 21, 39] b770 a        
joint moments [15, 17, 18, 21, 26] b770 a        
joint power [16, 20] b770 a        
step time [17, 41] b770 a        
step length [17, 21] b770 a        
single-support time [17, 39, 41] b770 a        
double-support time [17, 41] b770 a        
jerk [17] b770 a        
cadence [14, 18, 24, 35, 39] b770 a        
ground reaction force [21, 41] b770 a        
impulse [41] b770 a        
stride length [14, 24, 35, 39] b770 a        
knee extension instant [35] b770 a        
latency period [35] b770 a        
muscular activity pattern [17, 39] b760 a        
walking distance [14, 25] b455 a        
dynamic stability [39] b755/b235 p        
O2 consumption rate [79, 13, 14, 1618, 20, 27, 31] b455 a         
heart rate [13, 14, 18, 27] b455 a         
physiological cost index [24, 29] b455 a         
physical activity-related energy expenditure [31] b455 a         
effort to walk [7, 10, 18, 31] b469 p         
ability to divide attention [18, 22] b140 p         
concentration [25, 34] b140 p         
whole body sway [11] b755 a         
joint angles/moments (safety potential) [33] b770 a         
joint angles (gait pattern variability) [18] b770 a         
confidence (walking [7, 25, 32, 34]/standing [7]/balance [28, 39, 43]) b126 p/p/p         
perceived safety [18, 32] b126 p         
moment of heel off [39] b770 a         
postural stability [26] b755/b235 a         
load on non-affected leg [18] b780 p        
integration in body scheme [18] b180 p        
  body image [23] b180 p        
ICF
component
“Activities & Participation”
quality [10, 16, 18]/ ability [10, 12, 18, 29, 32] of walking d450 a-p/p        
learning to walk [10] d155 p         
stumble frequency [25, 29, 30, 34]   p         
fall frequency [25, 29, 30, 34, 43]   p         
activity duration [19, 42]   a         
activity level [42]   a         
number of daily bouts of activity [42]   a         
daily step frequency [19, 25] d450 a         
quality [25, 34]/ability [10, 18, 29, 30]/effort [7] of stairs negotiation d455 a/p/p         
quality [25, 34]/ability [10, 18, 29]/effort [7] of hill negotiation d450 a/p/p         
ability [10, 25, 30, 34]/effort [7] to negotiate uneven terrain d450 a-p/p         
quality of obstacle negotiation [27] d450 a         
duration [37]/symmetry [37] of sitting down/standing up d410 a/a         
basic functional mobility [25, 34, 39, 43] d4* a         
ability to perform daily life activities [38] d4*/d649 a-p         
satisfaction/performance [25, 30, 31, 34, 39, 42]   p        
general health/QoL [25, 27, 34]   p        
participation in work/leisure activities [43] d850/d920 p        
Contextual factors ICF Environmental & Personal factors amount of prosthetic use [39] e1151 p        
use of walking aids [18, 24, 39] e115 a-p        
swing phase control [12] e1151 p         
knee dynamics [12] e1151 p         
mechanical reliability [10] e115 p         
socket fit [30] e1151 p         
prosthesis attributes [29, 32] e1151 p         
   physical effects of prosthesis [32] e1151 p         
  1. * = applies to multiple paragraphs in chapter 4 (d410-d499); a = actual performance; p = perceived performance; ICF = International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.