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Table 5 Associated anomalies with congenital limb defects a

From: Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands: a 30-year population-based study

Anomalies   Polydactyly Reduction defects Syndactyly Other CLD Total  
   n(%) n(%) n(%) n(%) n(%) χ2 P
Cardiovascular yes 15 (45.5) 9 (27.3) 1 (3.0) 8 (24.2) 33 (100) 1.98 0.160
  no 25 (35.7) 21 (30.0) 14 (20.0) 10 (14.3) 70 (100)   
Urinary anomalies yes 5 (21.7) 9 (39.1) 5 (21.7) 4 (17.4) 23 (100) 1.85 0.194#
  no 35 (43.8) 21 (26.3) 10 (12.5) 14 (17.5) 80 (100)   
CNS and neural tube defects yes 6 (31.6) 7 (36.8) 4 (21.1) 2 (10.5) 19 (100) 1.63 0.246#
  no 34 (40.5) 23 (27.4) 11 (13.1) 16 (19.0) 84 (100)   
Genital yes 6 (31.6) 8 (42.1) 2 (10.5) 3 (15.8) 19 (100) 1.09 0.354#
  no 34 (40.5) 22 (26.2) 13 (15.5) 15 (17.9) 84 (100)   
Digestive yes 7 (35.0) 11 (55.0) 1 (5.0) 1 (5.0) 20 (100) 6.23 0.016#*
  no 33 (39.8) 19 (22.9) 14 (16.9) 17 (20.5) 83 (100)   
Respiratory yes 7 (50.0) 4 (28.6) 0 3 (21.4) 14 (100) 0.52 0.514#
  no 33 (37.1) 26 (29.2) 15 (16.9) 15 (16.9) 89 (100)   
Clefts (palate, lip) yes 6 (54.5) 2 (18.2) 2 (18.2) 1 (9.1) 11 (100) 0.10 0.774#
  no 34 (37.0) 28 (30.4) 13 (14.1) 17 (18.5) 92 (100)   
Eye yes 0 1 (20.0) 2 (40.0) 2 (40.0) 5 (100) 0.10 0.838#
  no 40 (40.8) 29 (29.6) 13 (13.3) 16 (16.3) 98 (100)   
Ear yes 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3) 0 0 3 (100) 0.03 1.000#
  no 38 (38.0) 29 (29.0) 15 (15.0) 18 (18.0) 100 (100)   
Total cases per CLD type   40 (38.8) 30 (29.1) 15 (14.6) 18 (17.5) 103 (100)   
  1. Abbreviations and notations: CLD–congenital limb defects, n–number of children with CLD, CNS–central nervous system, χ2–test value, P–value showing the significance of association of anomalies with limb defect.
  2. aOnly MCA cases with multiple congenital anomalies that had one type of CLD were included in this analysis; cases with a CLD and a malposition, or hip dysplasia/dislocation, or clubfoot were excluded from the analysis.
  3. *Significant P value.
  4. #Exact P values.