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Table 3 Description of laterality in live-born children with a limb defect a

From: Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands: a 30-year population-based study

  Right, Left, Bilateral, Total of sites,b
n(%) n(%) n(%) n(%)
Polydactyly (n = 322) 90 (13.6) 98 (14.8) 118 (17.8) 306 (46.1)
  Upper limb 65 (9.8) 72 (10.8) 95 (14.3) 232 (34.9)
  Lower limb 25 (3.8) 26 (3.9) 23 (3.5) 74 (11.1)
Syndactyly (n = 140) 40 (6.0) 49 (7.4) 44 (6.6) 133 (20.0)
  Upper limb 24 (3.6) 29 (4.4) 26 (3.9) 79 (11.9)
  Lower limb 16 (2.4) 20 (3.0) 18 (2.7) 54 (8.1)
Reduction defects (n = 193) 78 (11.7) 88 (13.3) 34 (5.1) 200 (30.1)
  Upper limb 52 (7.8) 67 (10.1) 14 (2.1) 133 (20.0)
    Transverse 38 (5.7) 49 (7.4) 7 (1.1) 94 (14.2)
    Longitudinal 8 (1.2) 9 (1.4) 6 (0.9) 23 (3.5)
    Intercalary 0 2 (0.3) 0 2 (0.3)
    Central 6 (0.9) 7 (1.1) 1 (0.2) 14 (2.1)
  Lower limb 26 (3.9) 21 (3.2) 20 (3.0) 67 (10.1)
    Transverse 10 (1.5) 10 (1.5) 10 (1.5) 30 (4.5)
    Longitudinal 10 (1.5) 9 (1.4) 3 (0.5) 22 (3.3)
    Intercalary 3 (0.5) 1 (0.2) 0 4 (0.6)
    Central 3 (0.5) 1 (0.2) 7 (1.1) 11 (1.7)
Other CLD (n = 58) 18 (2.7) 32 (4.8) 9 (1.4) 59 (8.9)
  Upper limb 5 (0.8) 14 (2.1) 4 (0.6) 23 (3.5)
  Lower limb 13 (2.0) 18 (2.7) 5 (0.8) 36 (5.4)
Total CLD (n = 664) 226 (34.0) 267 (40.2) 205 (30.9) 698 (105.1)
  Upper limb 146 (22.0) 182 (27.4) 139 (20.9) 467 (70.3)
  Lower limb 80 (12.0) 85 (12.8) 66 (9.9) 231 (34.8)
  1. Abbreviations and notations: CLD–congenital limb defects, N–number of sites.
  2. Percentages are calculated from the total number of children with isolated CLD and multiple congenital anomalies (n = 664). In 58 infants localisation was unknown.
  3. aIncluded only live births with isolated and multiple congenital defects (including a limb defect) because of 1) lack of information on stillbirths and abortions, and 2) genetic abnormalities or syndromes have characteristic patterns [31].
  4. bNumber of sites exceeds the number of children due to multiple CLD in some cases.