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Table 1 Total birth prevalence per type of congenital limb defects for the period 1981–2010 in the northern Netherlands

From: Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands: a 30-year population-based study

CLD Isolated CLD, n Multiple congenital anomalies, n CLD is part of a recognised condition, n Total, n Prevalence per 10,000
Polydactyly 291 45 83 419 8.4
  Upper limb 228 38 63a 329 6.6
    Preaxial 73 13 20 106 2.1
    Postaxial 141 21 39 201 4.0
    NOS 14 4 6 24 0.5
  Lower limb 75 9 32 116 2.3
    Preaxial 12 1 8 21 0.4
    Postaxial 59 7 19 85 1.7
    NOS 4 1 5 10 0.2
  NOS 4 0 2 6 0.1
  Upper and lower limb 16 2 14 32 0.6
Reduction defects 180 42 120 342 6.9
  Upper limb 128 28 94 250 5.0
    Transverse 89 17 39 145 2.9
    Longitudinal 21b 9 51 81 1.6
      Preaxial 12 7 33 52 1.0
      Postaxial 10 2 18 30 0.6
    Intercalary 3 1 5 9 0.2
    Central 16 1 4 21 0.4
    Multiple 1 0 5 6 0.1
  Lower limb 66 25 58 149 3.0
    Transverse 29 15 31 75 1.5
    Longitudinal 23c 5 24 52 1.0
      Preaxial 4 3 9 16 0.3
      Postaxial 21 2 16 39 0.8
    Intercalary 7 5 10 22 0.4
    Central 13 1 2 16 0.3
    Multiple 7 2 8d 17 0.3
    NOS 1 1 0 2 0.04
  NOS 0 0 1 1 0.02
  Upper and lower limb 14 11 33 58 1.2
Syndactyly 126 29 77 232 4.7
  Upper limb 77 17 46 140 2.8
  Lower limb 59 12 46 117 2.4
  NOS 0 1 0 1 0.02
  Upper and lower limb 10 1 15 26 0.5
Other CLDe 41 34 88 163 3.3
  Upper limb 18 14 66 98 2.0
  Lower limb 25 22 53 100 2.0
  NOS 0 1 0 1 0.02
  Upper and lower limb 2 3 31 36 0.7
Multiple CLDf 38g 14g 49g 101 2.0
Total no. of cases 598 135 315 1048 21.1
  Total no. of live births 587 77 159 823 16.5
  1. Total number of births for the period 1981–2010: n = 497,751.
  2. Abbreviations: CLD–congenital limb defects, NOS–not otherwise specified, n–number of children with CLD.
  3. aTwo children had preaxial and postaxial polydactyly of upper limbs.
  4. bOne child had preaxial and postaxial longitudinal reduction defects of upper limbs.
  5. cTwo children had preaxial and postaxial longitudinal reduction defects of lower limbs.
  6. dOne child had transversal, longitudinal and intercalary reduction defects of lower limbs.
  7. eThe category consisted of CLD like arthrogryposis (n = 40), hemihypertrophy (n = 25), contractures of elbows/knees/fingers (n = 19), undergrowth of limbs (n = 9), radio-ulnar synostosis (n = 5), macrodactyly (n = 4).
  8. fCategory containing cases with several CLD included in the study.
  9. gChildren in the group with isolated (n = 2), multiple congenital anomalies (n = 1), and CLD as part of a recognised condition (n = 4) had three types of CLD, whereas the rest of the children with multiple limb defects had two types of CLD.