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Table 4 Main characteristics of the three clusters

From: Chronic low back pain patient groups in primary care – A cross sectional cluster analysis

  Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3
Age on average 68 58 47
Working status of the majority Pensioners Invalidity pensioners Working
Severity of pain Intermediate High Low
Mental disorders (somatization, anxiety, depression, psychological comorbidities*) Intermediate High Low
Musculoskeletal**/other***comorbidities High Low Intermediate
Resources (resilience, coping) Intermediate Low High
Health care utilization Intermediate High Low
  1. *Participants with the comorbidities depression and/or other psychiatric diseases.
  2. **Participants with the comorbidities degenerative arthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis and/or osteoporosis.
  3. ***Participants with the comorbidities high blood pressure and/or heart diseases and/or asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and/or ulcer/stomach diseases and/or diabetes and/or high blood lipid level and/or kidney diseases and/or cancer diseases.