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Table 1 Demographic, low back pain, health outcomes, and the Buddhist characteristics of the religious beliefs and practices of participating office workers with chronic low back pain

From: Are religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism associated with disability and salivary cortisol in office workers with chronic low back pain?

Characteristics (n=463) (n=96)  
  N (%) Mean (SD) N (%) Mean (SD) P-value
Demographic characteristics      
Age   38.5 (10.0)   36.5 (9.1) 0.55
Gender      0.69
 Male 113 (24.4)   32 (33.3)   
 Female 350 (75.6)   64 (66.7)   
Body mass index (kg/m2)   23.1 (3.9)   23.8 (4.5) 0.16
Education      0.42
 Lower than Bachelor’s degree 80 (17.3)   14 (14.5)   
 Bachelor’s degree 298 (64.4)   59 (61.5)   
 Higher than Bachelor’s degree 85 (18.3)   23 (24.0)   
Exercise frequency in the past 12 months      0.34
Never 123 (26.6)   31 (32.3)   
Occasionally 288 (62.2)   52 (54.2)   
Regularly 52 (11.2)   13 (13.5)   
Low back pain characteristics      
Duration of low back pain (months)   28.3 (36.9)   27.8 (36.9) 0.89
Pain intensity in the past 4 weeks using NPS   4.3 (1.8)   4.3 (1.8) 0.87
Radiation of pain in the past 4 weeks      0.74
 Yes 137 (39.6)   30 (31.2)   
 No 326 (70.4)   66 (68.8)   
Health outcomes      
RDQ-24   4.8 (3.8)   5.1 (3.6) 0.40
FABQ work subscale   17.8 (7.8)   16.7 (7.6) 0.21
FABQ physical activity subscale   14.5 (4.5)   14.6 (4.4) 0.72
GHQ-28   4.6 (5.0)   5.0 (5.5) 0.47
 Anxiety subscale   1.3 (2.0)   1.4 (2.2) 0.77
 Depression subscale   0.2 (0.8)   0.4 (1.0) 0.13
AUCG (cortisol) (μg.min/dL)   -   208.2 (79.8) -
Cortisol level at awakening   -   6.02 (2.5)  
Cortisol level at 30 min after awakening   -   7.87 (3.4)  
Religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism      
 Total score   135.1 (14.9)   132.8 (15.1) 0.17
 Beliefs in Buddhist teaching subscale   43.5 (6.1)   42.0 (6.1) 0.05
 Buddhist practice subscale   47.6 (6.3)   46.4 (6.9) 0.09
 Buddhist lifestyle subscale   43.9 (6.2)   43.3 (6.3) 0.63
  1. NPS, numerical pain scale; RDQ-24, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire; FABQ, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire; GHQ-28, the General Health Questionnaire; AUCG, area under the curve with respect to ground.