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Table 3 Differences between visit 1 and visit 2 for patient-reported outcomes

From: The effects of commercially available footwear on foot pain and disability in people with gout: a pilot study

Parameter Visit and footwear Mean Difference p-values*
    Point est. 95% CI Footwear-specific change Change differs by footwear Any change
Foot Pain VAS Visit 1 (Own) 37.8       
Visit 2 (Asteroid) 20.0 −17.8 −44.0 8.3 0.19 0.47 0.028
Visit 2 (Apollo) 34.6 −3.2 −29.4 22.9 0.81
Visit 2 (Helix) 34.7 −3.1 −33.3 27.0 0.84
Visit 2 (Cardio Zip) 16.0 −21.9 −34.5 −9.3 0.002
Pain VAS Visit 1 (Own) 35.7       
Visit 2 (Asteroid) 45.1 9.4 −11.5 30.2 0.39 0.07 0.012
Visit 2 (Apollo) 34.0 −1.7 −22.6 19.1 0.87
Visit 2 (Viper) 33.3 −2.4 −26.5 21.6 0.84
Visit 2 (Cardio Zip) 16.3 −19.4 −29.3 −9.6 0.001
Patient global assessment VAS Visit 1 (Own) 37.9       
Visit 2 (Asteroid) 30.9 −7.1 −28.2 14.1 0.52 0.61 0.39
Visit 2 (Apollo) 37.1 −0.8 −22.0 20.4 0.94
Visit 2 (Viper) 16.2 −21.7 −46.1 2.6 0.09
Visit 2 (Cardio Zip) 32.5 −5.4 −15.6 4.8 0.31
HAQ-II Visit 1 (Own) 0.8       
Visit 2 (Asteroid) 0.7 −0.1 −0.5 0.2 0.38 0.07 0.016
Visit 2 (Apollo) 1.0 0.2 −0.1 0.5 0.15
Visit 2 (Helix) 0.7 −0.1 −0.5 0.2 0.55
Visit 2 (Cardio Zip) 0.5 −0.3 −0.4 −0.1 0.002
LFIS Visit 1 (Own) 10.6       
Visit 2 (Asteroid) 11.3 0.7 −2.6 4.0 0.68 0.37 0.03
(Impairment/footwear) Visit 2 (Apollo) 9.1 −1.6 −4.8 1.7 0.35
Visit 2 (Viper) 8.2 −2.4 −6.2 1.4 0.22
Visit 2 (Cardio Zip) 8.1 −2.5 −4.1 −1.0 0.004
LFIS Visit 1 (Own) 15.6       
Visit 2 (Asteroid) 10.9 −4.7 −9.5 0.2 0.07 0.46 0.11
(Activities/Participation) Visit 2 (Apollo) 15.6 0.0 −4.8 4.9 1.00
Visit 2 (Viper) 11.0 −4.6 −10.2 1.0 0.12
Visit 2 (Cardio Zip) 13.7 −1.8 −4.1 0.4 0.12
LFIS (total) Visit 1 (Own) 26.2       
Visit 2 (Asteroid) 22.6 −3.6 −10.8 3.5 0.33 0.80 0.064
Visit 2 (Apollo) 24.5 −1.7 −8.8 5.5 0.65
Visit 2 (Viper) 19.1 −7.1 −15.4 1.2 0.11
Visit 2 (Cardio Zip) 21.8 −4.4 −7.7 −1.0 0.02
LLTQ Visit 1 (own) 28.6       
Visit 2 (Asteroid) 33.3 4.6 0.1 9.1 0.05 0.08 0.11
Visit 2 (Apollo) 24.6 −4.1 −8.6 0.4 0.09
(Daily) Visit 2 (Viper) 28.7 0.1 −5.1 5.2 0.98
Visit 2 (Cardio Zip) 29.8 1.1 −1.0 3.2 0.30
LLTQ Visit 1 (Own) 18.0       
Visit 2 (Asteroid) 24.0 6.0 −1.9 13.8 0.15 0.11 0.11
Visit 2 (Apollo) 13.8 −4.2 −12.1 3.6 0.30   
(Recreational) Visit 2 (Viper) 21.3 3.2 −5.8 12.3 0.49   
  Visit 2 (Cardio Zip) 14.1 −3.9 −7.6 −0.2 0.05   
  1. Note: The p-values address the following null hypotheses. Footwear specific change: tests against a null hypothesis of no change between visits 1 and 2 for the target footwear only; Change differs by footwear: tests against a null hypothesis of similar change between visits 1 and 2 for any footwear; any change: tests against a null hypothesis of no change between visits 1 and 2.