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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria for this study

From: Validation of an osteoporosis self-assessment tool to identify primary osteoporosis and new osteoporotic vertebral fractures in postmenopausal Chinese women in Beijing

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Postmenopausal for ≥12 months A history or evidence of metabolic bone disease (e.g. type I diabetes, hyper- or hypoparathyroidism, Paget’s disease, osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta)
Han Chinese nationality Evidence of rheumatoid arthritis
Residency in Beijing for ≥20 years History of organ transplantation
Willingness to participate in the study The presence of cancer(s) with known metastasis to bone
Ability to read informed consent form A long history of smoking or alcohol consumption
Ability to provide informed consent Evidence of significant renal impairment
  Menopause before the age of 40 years
  Previous fracture or replacement of both hips
  The presence of a prolonged immobility condition (e.g., spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, muscular dystrophy, ankylosing spondylitis)
  Prior use of an antiresorptive (e.g. bisphosphonate, estrogen, selective estrogen receptor modulators and calcitonin) or anabolic agent (e.g. fluoride and parathormone-PTH)