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Table 1 Frequencies (percentages) and means (standard deviations) of background factors, occupational groups, psychosocial working conditions, and job strain in 1990 for those granted DP due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), those granted DP due to some other reason (DP other) and those not receiving DP (No DP) during 1993–2008 follow-up (n=24 543)

From: Register-based data of psychosocial working conditions and occupational groups as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses: a prospective cohort study of 24 543 Swedish twins

  DP MSD n= 1 774 (7%) DP other n= 2 480 (10%) No DP n= 20 290 (83%)
Sex n (%) n (%) n (%)
Men 655 (37) 1 045 (43) 10 445 (51)
Women 1 119 (63) 1 426 (58) 9 845 (49)
Zygosity
MZ 678 (38) 969 (39) 8 058 (40)
DZ same-sex 1 096 (62) 1 511 (61) 12 232 (60)
Age groups
32–44 638 (36) 1 056 (43) 10 827 (53)
45–54 937 (53) 1 123 (45) 6 401 (32)
55–62 199 (11) 301 (12) 3 062 (15)
Marital status
Married 1 191 (67) 1 510 (61) 13 801 (68)
Unmarried 583 (33) 970 (39) 6 489 (32)
Children living at home
Yes 1 022 (58) 1 399 (56) 12 936 (64)
No 752 (42) 1 081 (44) 7 354 (36)
Educational level
High (≥13 years) 161 (9) 527 (21) 5 319 (26)
Intermediate (10–12 years) 772 (44) 1 051 (42) 8 573 (42)
Low (≤9 years) 841 (47) 902 (36) 6 398 (32)
Type of living area
Urban/semi-urban 1 097 (62) 1 708 (69) 13 994 (69)
Semirural/rural 677 (38) 772 (31) 6 296 (31)
Occupational groups defined by sector
Administration& management 172 (10) 362 (15) 3 514 (17)
Technology, science, social science& art 143 (8) 391 (16) 3 819 (19)
Health care& social work 395 (22) 513 (21) 3 451 (17)
Commercial work 107 (6) 157 (6) 1 683 (8)
Agriculture, forestry& fishing 60 (3) 75 (3) 718 (4)
Transport 111 (6) 140 (6) 1 045 (5)
Production& mining 500 (28) 560 (23) 4 143 (20)
Service& military work 286 (16) 282 (11) 1 917 (9)
Job strain    
High strain 217 (12) 344 (14) 2 784 (14)
Low strain 101 (6) 177 (7) 1 631 (8)
Active 370 (21) 774 (31) 7 995 (39)
Passive 926 (52) 954 (38) 6 336 (31)
Iso-strain 160 (9) 231 (9) 1 544 (8)
Psychosocial working conditions mean (SD) mean (SD) mean (SD)
Job demands (range 1–10, high score is low) 6.34 (0.74) 6.12 (0.79) 5.99 (0.76)
Job control (range 1–10, high score is high) 6.04 (1.25) 6.42 (1.28) 6.67 (1.27)
Social support (range 1–10, high score is high) 6.46 (0.66) 6.40 (0.62) 6.34 (0.63)