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Table 3 Functional capacity, fatigue scores and quality of life in the SLE patients and controls*

From: Low dynamic muscle strength and its associations with fatigue, functional performance, and quality of life in premenopausal patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and low disease activity: a case–control study

Variable SLE CONTROLS Difference between means P-value
(n = 25) (n = 25) (95% CI)#
Functional performance     
 Handgrip strength, kg 24.2 ± 4.9 27.1 ± 4.7 2.8 (0.1; 5.5) 0.0464
 30-s chair stand test, repetitions 19.6 ± 5.6 24.1 ± 3.7 4.5(1.7; 7.2) 0.0018
 30-s arm curl test, repetitions 20.5 ± 3.3 24.6 ± 3.6 4.1 (2.1; 6.1) 0.0001
 Timed Up and Go, s 5.3 ± 0.4 5.0 ± 0.6 -0.3 (-0.6; -0.0) 0.0495
 Flexibility sit and reach, cm 24.0 ± 9.5 29.0 ± 9.4 5.0 (-0.40; 10.4) 0.0680
 30-s balance, s 17.6 (9.8) 17.0 (9.1) - 0.7848
Fatigue symptom     
 FSS, median (IQR)† 3.5 (1.2) 2.5 (0.9) - 0.0043
Quality of life, SF-36     
 Physical functioning, median (IQR)† 61.6 (24.4) 81.2 (14.5) - 0.0029
 Role-physical functioning, median (IQR)† 53.0 (41.03) 78.0 (25.3) - 0.0375
 Bodily pain, median (IQR)† 64.4 (25.7) 72.9 (22.0) - 0.2752
 General health 51.1 ± 17.8 67.4 ± 16.3 16.3 (6.6; 26.0) 0.0014
 Vitality, median (IQR)† 54.8 (11.5) 55.2 (10.3) - 0.9686
 Social functioning, median (IQR)† 68.4 (24.0) 83.8 (18.3) - 0.0266
 Role-emotional functioning 41.1 (39.9) 73.2 (36.1) - 0.0073
 Mental health, median (IQR)† 50.0 (13.2) 58.5 (10.6) 8.5 (1.7; 15.3) 0.0150
  1. * Values expressed as the mean ± SD, unless otherwise stated. † These variables are not normally distributed and therefore are expressed as median. # Calculated only when Student’s t-test was used. SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, CI confidence interval, FSS fatigue severity scale, IQR interquartile range.