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Table 4 Subdistribution hazard ratios of undergoing total joint replacement in males and females: multivariable competing risk regressions ! - accounting for the competing risk of death (N = 44,614)

From: Smoking and primary total hip or knee replacement due to osteoarthritis in 54,288 elderly men and women

  Male Female
N = 19,864 N = 24,750
TJR: 1,405 (7.1%) TJR: 2,200 (8.9%)
Death prior to TJR: 46.8% Death prior to TJR: 34.2%
Covariates sHR (95% CI), P value sHR (95% CI), P value
Age, continuous 0.96 (0.95–0.97), <0.001 0.96 (0.95–0.97), <0.001
Charlson Index, continuous 0.75 (0.68–0.84), <0.001 0.73 (0.66–0.81), <0.001
BMI categories Kg/m2   
Normal weight 18.5-24.9 (ref) 1.00 1.00
Underweight <18.5 0.41 (0.10–1.67), 0.214 0.31 (0.15–0.61), 0.001
Overweight 25–29.9 1.47 (1.22–1.76), <0.001 1.60 (1.39–1.83), <0.001
Obese 30–34.9 2.05 (1.67–2.52), <0.001 2.31 (2.00–2.67), <0.001
Morbidly obese ≥ 35 2.92 (2.15–3.97), <0.001 2.55 (2.09–3.09), <0.001
Current smoker, yes 0.60 (0.48–0.75), <0.001 0.70 (0.56–0.86), 0.001
Exercise > 30 minutes /per week, yes 1.13 (1.01–1.26), 0.035 1.00 (0.92–1.01), 0.966
SEIFA score, continuous 1.00 (1.00–1.00), 0.049 1.00 (0.99–1.00), 0.213
Screening SBP, continuous 0.99 (0.99–0.99), 0.010 0.99 (0.99–0.99), <0.001
  1. !Also controlled for alcohol intake, and screening diastolic blood pressure.
  2. Abbreviations: BMI (body mass index), SEIFA (Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas), SBP (systolic blood pressure), TJR (total joint replacement), sHR (subdistribution hazard ratio).