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Table 3 Pain-on-movement at 48 h (primary efficacy variable)

From: Efficacy and safety of diclofenac diethylamine 1.16% gel in acute neck pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Mean (SD) [mm] LS * mean (SE) [mm] LS mean difference (SE) 95% CI p-value
DDEA 1.16% gel (N = 36) Placebo DDEA 1.16% gel (N = 36) Placebo Placebo – DDEA 1.16% gel  
(N = 36) (N = 36)  
19.5 (12.9) 56.9 (16.1) 17.8 (2.1) 56.3 (2.4) 38.4 (3.0) p < 0.0001
     32.4–44.5  
  1. * LS-mean – Least squares mean difference adjusted for effects of site and baseline POM; ANCOVA – Analysis-of-covariance test with treatment and site as main effects and the baseline POM as a covariate.
  2. DDEA = diclofenac diethylamine; SD = standard deviation; SE = standard error; CI = confidence interval.