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Table 1 Selection criteria for trial eligibility

From: The CASCADE trial: effectiveness of ceramic versus PEEK cages for anterior cervical discectomy with interbody fusion; protocol of a blinded randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteria
  • Age 18-75 years
  • Radicular signs and symptoms in one or both arms (i.e., pain, paresthesia or paresis in a specific nerve root distribution) or symptoms and signs of acute or chronic myelopathy
  • At least 8 weeks prior conservative treatment (i.e., physical therapy, pain medication)
  • Radiographic diagnosis of cervical disc herniation and/or osteophyte at 1 level (C3-C4 to C7-T1) in accordance with clinical signs and symptoms
  • Ability and willingness to comply with project requirements
  • Written informed consent given by the subject or the subject's legally authorised representative
Exclusion criteria
  • Previous cervical surgery (either anterior or posterior)
  • Increased motion on dynamic studies (> 3 mm)
  • Severe segmental kyphosis of the involved disc level (> 7 degrees)
  • Patient cannot be imaged with MRI
  • Neck pain only (without radicular or medullary symptoms)
  • Infection
  • Metabolic and bone diseases (osteoporosis, severe osteopenia)
  • Neoplasm or trauma of the cervical spine
  • Spinal anomaly (Klippel Feil, Bechterew, OPLL)
  • Severe mental or psychiatric disorder
  • Inadequate Dutch language
  • Planned (e)migration abroad in the year after inclusion