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Table 5 Associations with non-occupational and occupational risk factors in stepwise regression models

From: Differences in risk factors for neurophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome and illness with similar symptoms but normal median nerve function: a case–control study

Risk factor NP+ve cases v controlsa NP-ve cases v controlsa NP+ve cases v NP-ve casesa
  ORb (95% CI) ORb (95% CI) ORb (95% CI)
BMI (Kg/m 2 )       
  <25 1     1  
  ≥25 and <30 1.6 (1.1-2.1)    1.3 (0.9-1.9)
  ≥30 2.1 (1.6-2.9)    2.7 (1.9-3.9)
Smoking habits       
  Never smoked 1     1  
  Ex-smoker 1.1 (0.8-1.4)    1.2 (0.9-1.7)
  Current smoker 0.6 (0.4-0.8)    0.8 (0.5-1.1)
Other disease c       
  Diabetes    0.7 (0.4-1.2) 1.6 (0.9-3.1)
  Other arthritis      0.7 (0.5-1.0)
Mental health       
  Good 1   1    
  Intermediate 1.3 (0.9-1.7) 1.5 (1.1-2.0)   
  Poor 1.4 (1.0-1.9) 1.3 (0.9-1.8)   
Number of somatic symptoms at least moderately distressing in past week       
  0    1   1  
  1    1.5 (1.1-2.2) 0.7 (0.4-1.0)
  ≥2    1.5 (1.1-2.1) 0.6 (0.4-0.9)
Physical activities in an average working day c       
  Use of keyboard or mouse for > 4 hours in total    1.4 (1.1-1.9) 0.6 (0.4-0.8)
  Other repeated movements of wrist/fingers for > 4 hours in total 1.5 (1.1-1.9) 1.2 (0.9-1.6)   
  Repeated bending /straightening of elbow for > 1 hour in total    1.3 (0.9-1.7)   
  Work for >1 hour in total with tool(s) that made the hand or arm vibrate 2.4 (1.6-3.8) 1.6 (1.0-2.6) 1.4 (0.9-2.2)
Psychosocial risk factors c       
  Targets, bonuses or deadlines    0.8 (0.6-1.0) 1.2 (0.9-1.7)
  Little support from supervisor or colleagues 1.6 (1.1-2.3) 1.9 (1.3-2.7)   
  Little choice in how or what work is done or in timetable and breaks 1.4 (1.1-2.0) 1.4 (1.0-1.9)   
  1. aAnalyses were restricted to 1628 subjects (773 controls, 457 NP+ve cases and 398 NP-ve cases) who had held a paid job. Data on some non-occupational risk factors were missing for small numbers of cases and/or controls (see Table 3).
  2. bFor each of the three comparisons, risk estimates were derived from a final regression model incorporating sex, age (in 10-year strata), ethnicity, and the other variables for which results are presented.
  3. cRisk estimates are for those exposed to the risk factor relative to those unexposed.