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Table 4 Associations with occupational risk factors according to neurophysiological findings

From: Differences in risk factors for neurophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome and illness with similar symptoms but normal median nerve function: a case–control study

Risk factor Controls NP+ve casesa NP-ve casesa
  na na ORb (95% CI) na ORb (95% CI)
Physical activities in an average working day c        
  Use of keyboard or mouse for > 4 hours in total 254 120 0.7 (0.6-1.0) 145 1.1 (0.9-1.5)
  Other repeated movements of wrist/fingers for > 4 hours in total 312 246 1.7 (1.3-2.1) 203 1.5 (1.2-1.9)
  Repeated bending /straightening of elbow for > 1 hour in total 416 293 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 254 1.4 (1.1-1.8)
  Work for >1 hour in total with tool(s) that made the hand(s) or arm(s) vibrate 60 77 2.6 (1.8-3.9) 52 1.8 (1.2-2.7)
  Work with hand above shoulder height for > 1 hour in total 91 86 1.8 (1.3-2.5) 58 1.2 (0.9-1.8)
  Lifting/carrying weights ≥ 5 kg in one hand 285 195 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 160 1.1 (0.9-1.5)
  Work with neck bent forward for >2 hours in total 296 193 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 176 1.3 (1.0-1.7)
  Work with neck twisted for > 0.5 hours in total 181 125 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 101 1.1 (0.8-1.5)
Psychosocial risk factors c        
  Targets, bonuses or deadlines 419 247 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 207 0.9 (0.7-1.1)
  Little support from supervisor or colleagues 82 78 1.7 (1.2-2.4) 78 2.0 (1.5-2.9)
  Little choice in how or what work is done or in timetable and breaks 137 116 1.6 (1.2-2.1) 96 1.6 (1.2-2.1)
  Job dissatisfaction 90 59 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 62 1.3 (0.9-1.9)
  1. aAnalyses were restricted to 1628 subjects (773 controls, 457 NP+ve cases and 398 NP-ve cases) who had held a paid job. Data on some risk factors were missing for small numbers of cases and/or controls.
  2. bAdjusted for sex, age (in 10-year strata) and ethnicity.
  3. cRisk estimates are for those exposed to the risk factor relative to those unexposed.