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Table 2 Contents of the goal management program

From: A goal management intervention for polyarthritis patients: rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial

Meeting Topic Main goals meeting Applied techniques#
1. Arthritis in daily life Become aware of the influence of polyarthritis in the different domains of life. Information (general), instruction, problem identification, behavioral information (narratives), modeling (by narratives), vicarious reinforcement (narratives), comparison (with narratives and other participants), emotional social support (by other participants), set homework tasks, prompt (email after meeting to do homework).
2. Important personal goals Link activities that are threatened by polyarthritis with the associated higher goals. Distinguish between lower order and higher order goals. Discuss the four goal management strategies and their pros and cons and accompanying emotions. Information (goals, pyramid and hierarchy of goals), reframing (hierarchy of lower/higher order goals), instruction, problem identification (goal hierarchy and main goals), behavioral information (goal management strategies), record antecedents and consequences of behavior (discussion of goal management strategies), modeling (by other participants), cognitive restructuring (discussion of goal management strategies), emotional social support, set homework tasks, problem identification (homework: define threatened activity)
3. Dealing with goals Formulate the first threatened activity for the personal trajectory. Explore the feasibility of goal management strategies for resolving threatened activity. Information (general), feedback (group discussion on threatened activity), social comparison (group discussion), vicarious reinforcement (group discussion), general problem solving, record antecedents and consequences of behavior (mental simulation), imagery (mental simulation), mental rehearsal (mental simulation), decision making (mental simulation) reframing (of goal management strategies by mental simulation), set homework tasks, planning (homework: write action plan)
4. Emotions & Action plan Design action plan for the personal trajectory. Anticipate resistance for change from self and social environment. Feedback (group discussion on action plan), social comparison (group discussion), vicarious reinforcement (group discussion), planning (action plan), coping planning (action plan), information (emotions and resistance), modeling (by personal role model), vicarious reinforcements (role model), set homework tasks, practice behavior (goal management strategy by action plan), prompt (email after meeting to execute action plan)
5. Alternative goal management strategy & Evaluation Evaluate action plan and the goal management strategy used. Choose new activity for personal trajectory and practice alternative goal management strategy to solve problems with the particular activity. Goal review (evaluation execution action plan), feedback, social comparison (group discussion), general problem solving, record antecedents and consequences of behavior (mental simulation), imagery (mental simulation), mental rehearsal (mental simulation), decision making (mental simulation) reframing (of goal management strategies by mental simulation), cognitive restructuring (of goal management strategies), planning (action plan), coping planning (action plan), set homework tasks, practice behavior (execution of action plan and goal management strategy), relapse prevention (personal warning signs)
6. Looking back and ahead Evaluate action plan and used goal management strategies. Consolidate learned skills and competencies. Evaluate progress during program. Goal review (evaluation execution action plan), feedback, social comparison (group discussion), relapse prevention (personal warning signs), coping planning (personal warning signs), cognitive restructuring (of goal management strategies), planning (plan actions for future), coping planning (plan actions for future)
  1. # Note. Adapted from Michie et al., 2008 [61]; Abraham & Michie, 2008 [62]; and Vriezekolk et al., 2013 [63]. Behavioral information: provide information about antecedents or consequences of the behavior, or consequences between them, or behavior change techniques; Cognitive restructuring: changing cognitions about causes and consequences of behavior; Comparison: provide comparative data (cf. standard, person’s own past behavior, others’ behavior); Coping planning: identify and plan ways of overcoming barriers; Decision making: generate alternative courses of action, and pros and cons of each, and weigh them against each other; Emotional social support: other participants and trainer listen, provide empathy and give generalized positive feedback; Feedback: of (self-) monitored behavior; Goal review: assess extent to which the target behavior is achieved, identify factors influencing this achievement and amend target if appropriate; Imagery: use planned images to implement behavior change techniques; Modeling: observe the behavior of others; Planning: identify component parts of behavior and make a plan to execute each one or consider when and/or where a behavior will be performed, i.e. schedule behaviors; Prompt: stimulus that elicits behavior (incl. telephone calls or email reminders designed to prompt the behavior); Record antecedents and consequences of behavior: social and environmental situations and events, emotions, cognitions; Relapse prevention: identify situations that increase the likelihood of returning to a risk behavior or failing to perform a new behavior and help to plan how to avoid or manage the situation, so that new behavioral routines are maintained; Social comparison: provide opportunities for social comparison e.g., group learning; Vicarious reinforcement: observe the consequences of other’s behavior. No definition available: General problem solving; Information; Instruction; Mental rehearsal; Practice behavior; Problem identification; Reframing; Set homework tasks.