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Table 4 Diagnostic accuracy of clinician examination conclusion

From: Accuracy of physical examination for chronic lumbar radiculopathy

Predictor L4 nerve root impingement L5 nerve root impingement S1 nerve root impingement
  Sens Spec +LR −LR Sens Spec +LR −LR Sens Spec +LR −LR
Clinician concluded L4 nerve root impingement 0.33 (0.06–0.79) 0.95 (0.89–0.97) 6.28 (1.06–37.21) 0.70 (0.32–1.57) 0.10 (0.03–0.26) 0.95 (0.89–0.98) 2.15 (0.51–9.06) 0.94 (0.83–1.07) * * * *
Clinician concluded L5 nerve root impingement 0.33 (0.06–0.79) 0.68 (0.59–0.76) 1.05 (0.21–5.30) 0.98 (0.43–2.20) 0.47 (0.30–0.64) 0.73 (0.63–0.81) 1.74 (1.04–2.93) 0.73 (0.51–1.04) 0.26 (0.13–0.45) 0.66 (0.56–0.75) 0.77 (0.38–1.55) 1.12 (0.85–1.46)
Clinician concluded S1 nerve root impingement 0.33 (0.06–0.79) 0.38 (0.30–0.47) 0.54 (0.11–2.68) 1.75 (0.76–4.03) 0.43 (0.27–0.61) 0.32 (0.23–0.43) 0.64 (0.42–0.99) 1.74 (1.12–2.69) 0.74 (0.55–0.87) 0.43 (0.33–0.53) 1.29 (0.97–1.72) 0.61 (0.31–1.20)
  1. Values in each cell are an estimate and 95% confidence intervals.
  2. Sens indicates sensitivity (TP/TP+FN).
  3. Spec indicates specificity (TN/TN+FP).
  4. +LR indicates positive likelihood ratio (Sens/1-Spec).
  5. −LR indicates negative likelihood ratio (1-Sens/Spec).
  6. *No TP (True Positive).