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Table 3 Diagnostic accuracy of individual neurological tests

From: Accuracy of physical examination for chronic lumbar radiculopathy

Predictor L4 nerve root impingement L5 nerve root impingement S1 nerve root impingement
  Sens Spec +LR −LR Sens Spec +LR −LR Sens Spec +LR −LR
Femoral nerve stretch test * * * * 0.17 (0.07–0.33) 0.99 (0.94–1.00) 14.33 (1.74–117.80) 0.84 (0.72–0.99) * * * *
Straight leg raise test * * * * 0.53 (0.36–0.70) 0.47 (0.36–0.57) 1.00 (0.68–1.47) 1.00 (0.64–1.57) 0.63 (0.44–0.78) 0.49 (0.39–0.60) 1.24 (0.87–1.78) 0.75 (0.44–1.28)
Knee reflex 0.67 (0.21–0.94) 0.83 (0.75–0.89) 3.96 (1.61–9.74) 0.40 (0.08–1.99) 0.18 (0.08–0.37) 0.75 (0.63–0.84) 0.73 (0.30–1.79) 1.09 (0.87–1.37) 0.11 (0.04–0.28) 0.80 (0.70–0.87) 0.55 (0.18–1.72) 1.11 (0.94–1.32)
Ankle reflex 0.67 (0.21–0.94) 0.60 (0.51–0.69) 1.67 (0.73–3.84) 0.55 (0.11–2.76) 0.27 (0.14–0.44) 0.55 (0.44–0.65) 0.59 (0.31–1.11) 1.34 (1.00–1.79) 0.44 (0.27–0.639 0.61 (0.50–0.70) 1.13 (0.69–1.85) 0.92 (0.63–1.33)
Sensory loss L4 0.33 (0.06–0.79) 0.88 (0.81–0.93) 2.90 (0.54–15.55) 0.75 (0.34–1.68) 0.20 (0.10–0.37) 0.91 (0.83–0.95) 2.15 (0.81–5.70) 0.88 (0.73–1.07) 0.11 (0.04–0.28) 0.88 (0.79–0.93) 0.90 (0.27–2.99) 1.01 (0.87–1.18)
Sensory loss L5 0.33 (0.06–0.79) 0.73 (0.65–0.81) 1.26 (0.25–6.40) 0.91 (0.40–2.03) 0.43 (0.27–0.61) 0.79 (0.69–0.86) 2.07 (1.16–3.70) 0.72 (0.51–1.00) 0.18 (0.08–0.37) 0.71 (0.61–0.79) 0.63 (0.27–1.49) 1.15 (0.92–1.44)
Sensory loss S1 * * * * 0.33 (0.19–0.51) 0.51 (0.41–0.61) 0.68 (0.39–1.18) 1.30 (0.94–1.81) 0.44 (0.27–0.63) 0.55 (0.45–0.65) 0.99 (0.61–1.60) 1.01 (0.69–1.48)
Hip flexion * * * * 0.23 (0.12–0.41) 0.93 (0.86–0.97) 3.34 (1.22–9.16) 0.82 (0.67–1.01) * * * *
Hip extension 0.33 (0.06–0.79) 0.88 (0.81–0.93) 2.90 (0.54–15.55) 0.75 (0.34–1.68) 0.03 (0.01–0.17) 0.85 (0.76–0.91) 0.22 (0.03–1.61) 1.14 (1.02–1.27) 0.18 (0.08–0.37) 0.90 (0.82–0.94) 1.83 (0.67–5.00) 0.91 (0.75–1.10)
Hip abduction * * * * 0.07 (0.02–0.21) 0.92 (0.84–0.96) 0.82 (0.18–3.73) 1.01 (0.91–1.13) 0.04 (0.01–0.18) 0.91 (0.83–0.95) 0.41 (0.05–3.15) 1.06 (0.96–1.17)
Knee flexion 0.67 (0.21–0.94) 0.45 (0.36–0.54) 1.22 (0.54–2.75) 0.74 (0.15–3.71) 0.50 (0.33–0.67) 0.43 (0.33–0.53) 0.88 (0.59–1.31) 1.16 (0.75–1.79) 0.70 (0.51–0.84) 0.49 (0.39–0.60) 1.39 (1.01–1.92) 0.60 (0.32–1.11)
Knee extension * * * * * * * * * * * *
Ankle dorsiflexion 0.33 (0.06–0.79) 0.68 (0.59–0.76) 1.05 (0.20–5.30) 0.98 (0.44–2.20) 0.40 (0.25–0.58) 0.71 (0.61–0.79) 1.38 (0.80–2.38) 0.85 (0.61–1.17) 0.26 (0.13–0.45) 0.66 (0.56–0.75) 0.77 (0.38–1.55) 1.12 (0.85–1.46)
Ankle plantarflexion 0.67 (0.21–0.94) 0.62 (0.53–0.70) 1.75 (0.76–4.03) 0.54 (0.11–2.68) 0.27 (0.14–0.44) 0.57 (0.46–0.67) 0.62 (0.33–1.18) 1.29 (0.97–1.71) 0.44 (0.27–0.63) 0.63 (0.52–0.72) 1.20 (0.73–1.98) 0.88 (0.61–1.28)
Ankle eversion 0.67 (0.21–0.94) 0.31 (0.23–0.40) 0.97 (0.43–2.17) 1.08 (0.21–5.46) 0.45 (0.27–0.65) 0.28 (0.19–0.38) 0.63 (0.39–1.01) 1.96 (1.17–3.26) 0.70 (0.51–0.84) 0.31 (0.23–0.42) 1.03 (0.77–1.36) 0.94 (0.49–1.82)
Big toe extension * * * * 0.33 (0.19–0.51) 0.83 (0.73–0.89) 1.91 (0.97–3.79) 0.81 (0.62–1.06) 0.15 (0.06–0.32) 0.76 (0.67–0.84) 0.63 (0.24–1.67) 1.11 (0.49–1.82)
  1. Values in each cell are estimates and 95% confidence intervals.
  2. Sens indicates sensitivity (TP/TP+FN).
  3. Spec indicates specificity (TN/TN+FP).
  4. +LR indicates positive likelihood ratio (Sens/1-Spec).
  5. −LR indicates negative likelihood ratio (1-Sens/Spec).
  6. *No TP (True Positive).