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Table 4 Diagnostic accuracy of traditional tests for acromioclavicular joint pain

From: Shoulder pain in primary care: diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination tests for non-traumatic acromioclavicular joint pain

Clinical tests Cell counts Diagnostic accuracy
  TP FN FP TN Sensitivity (95% CI) Specificity (95% CI) PPV (95% CI) NPV (95% CI) LR+ (95% CI) LR- (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Individual tests
Cross-body adduction 14 8 93 33 0.64 (0.43, 0.80) 0.26 (0.19, 0.35) 0.13 (0.08, 0.21) 0.81 (0.66, 0.90) 0.86 (0.58, 1.12) 1.39 (0.71, 2.43) 0.62 (0.24, 1.61)
Active Compression/O’Brien’s test 3 19 10 117 0.14 (0.05, 0.33) 0.92 (0.86, 0.96) 0.23 (0.08, 0.50) 0.86 (0.79, 0.91) 1.73 (0.53, 5.15) 0.94 (0.72, 1.06) 1.85 (0.47. 7.33)
Hawkins-Kennedy test 14 6 81 45 0.70 (0.48, 0.86) 0.36 (0.28, 0.44) 0.15 (0.09, 0.23) 0.88 (0.77, 0.95) 1.09 (0.74, 1.41) 0.84 (0.39, 1.55) 1.30 (0.47, 3.61)
Localised ACJ tenderness 8 14 34 94 0.36 (0.20, 0.57) 0.73 (0.65, 0.80) 0.19 (0.10, 0.33) 0.87 (0.79, 0.92) 1.37 (0.70, 2.39) 0.87 (0.58, 1.13) 1.58 (0.61, 4.10)
Combinations of tests
At least 1 of 4 21 1 120 9 0.96 (0.78, 0.99) 0.07 (0.04, 0.13) 0.15 (0.10, 0.22) 0.90 (0.60, 0.98) 1.03 (0.84, 1.11) 0.65 (0.11, 3.54) 1.58 (0.19, 13.09)
At least 2 of 4 11 9 77 43 0.55 (0.34, 0.74) 0.36 (0.28, 0.45) 0.13 (0.07, 0.21) 0.83 (0.70, 0.91) 0.86 (0.53, 1.20) 1.26 (0.69, 2.01) 0.68 (0.26, 1.78)
At least 3 of 4 6 14 22 93 0.30 (0.15, 0.52) 0.81 (0.73, 0.87) 0.21 (0.10, 0.40) 0.87 (0.79, 0.92) 1.57 (0.70, 3.13) 0.87 (0.59, 1.09) 1.81 (0.63, 5.25)
4 of 4 1 19 1 113 0.05 (0.01, 0.24) 0.99 (0.95, 1.00) 0.50 (0.10, 0.91) 0.86 (0.79, 0.91) 5.70 (0.60, 52.63) 0.96 (0.77, 1.01) 5.95 (0.36, 99.19)
  1. Abbreviations. TP, true positives; FN, false negatives; FP, false positives; TN, true negatives; CI, confidence interval; PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR-, negative likelihood ratio; OR, odds ratio.
  2. Note: Cell counts do not total 153 in some cases due to missing data.
  3. All P-values for the OR were >0.05 (not significant).