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Table 4 Association of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, nutritional and workloads with chronic low back pain in 2010

From: Increase of chronic low back pain prevalence in a medium-sized city of southern Brazil

Variable   Crude analyses   Adjusted analyses
PRR 95% CI P PRR 95% CI P
1 st Level       
Sex    <0,001*    <0,001*
Male 1 -   1 -  
Female 1.77 1.38-2.26   1.76 1.38-2.23  
Age    <0,001**    <0,001**
20-29 1 -   1 -  
30-39 1.96 1.19-3.22   1.96 1.20-3.21  
40-49 2.79 1.74-4.48   2.83 1.75-4.57  
50-59 3.23 1.99-5.25   3.24 1.99-5.25  
60-69 3.35 2.20-5.12   3.35 2.19-5.13  
70 or older 3.32 2.11-5.23   3.15 2.00-4.97  
Skin Color    0,3*    -
White 1 -   - -  
Non White 1.18 0.89-1.56   - -  
2 nd Level       
Civil Status    0,04*    0,02*
Single/alone 1 -   1 -  
Married/partner 1.29 1.01-1.64   1.31 1.03-1.65  
Education (y)    <0,001**    0,01**
0 2.11 1.36-3.28   1.55 1.00-2.41  
1-4 1.92 1.37-2.68   1.46 1.03-2.07  
5-8 1.44 0.98-2.10   1.21 0.82-1.78  
9-11 1.19 0.78-1.81   1.20 0.79-1.83  
12 or more 1 -   1 -  
3 rd Level       
Smoking    0,003**    0,005**
Never smoker 1 -   1 -  
Former smoker 1.41 1.05-1.90   1.23 0.90-1.69  
Current smoker 1.43 1.11-1.85   1.48 1.12-1.97  
BMI    <0,001**    0,01**
<25 1 -   1 -  
Overweight (25–29.9) 1.13 0.84-1.51   0.96 0.70-1.33  
Obesity (≥30) 1.91 1.43-2.53   1.50 1.12-2.01  
4 th Level       
Insufficient Physical Activity    0.10*    0.90*
No 1 -   1 -  
Yes 1.30 0.95-1.79   1.02 0.74-1.43  
Repetitiviness    <0,001**    0,01**
Never 1 -   1 -  
Sometimes 1.51 0.97-2.35   1.47 0.89-2.41  
Always 2.05 1.38-3.05   1.70 1.09-2.64  
Weight lifting/loading    0,03**    0,73**
Never 1 -   1 -  
Sometimes 1.04 0.77-1.40   0.98 0.74-1.30  
Always 1.38 1.05-1.81   1.07 0.80-1.42  
Forced/Akward position    <0,001**    <0,001**
Never 1 -   1 -  
Sometimes 1.31 0.93-1.84   1.24 0.87-1.77  
Always 2.17 1.60-2.95   1.90 1.37-2.63  
Static Posture    0,15**    0,70**
Never 1 -   1 -  
Sometimes 1.29 0.96-1.73   1.04 0.77-1.40  
Always 1.27 0.92-1.77   0.94 0.66-1.36  
  1. * Wald Test for Heterogeneity.
  2. ** Wald Test for Trend.
  3. 95% Confidence Interval.
  4. 1st Level: adjusted between them; 2nd Level: adjusted between them and for the variables from the 1st level; 3rd Level: adjusted between them, for the ones from 1st and 2nd levels; 4th Level: adjusted between them and for previous levels.