Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Outcome measures

From: Electrical stimulation for chronic non-specific low back pain in a working-age population: a 12-week double blinded randomized controlled trial

Primary outcome measure:
  Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)
Secondary measures:
a. Rowland Morris Instrument (0–24 scale of disability)
b. VAS Pain score (0–10)
c. Physical activity levels (objectively measured using accelerometers)
d. Functional evaluation including strength when pushing (peak and average kg of force)
e. Functional evaluation including strength when pulling (peak and average kg of force)
f. Comfortable (up to maximum baseline pain level) range of motion in flexion (degrees from neutral)
g. Comfortable (up to maximum baseline pain level) range of motion in extension (degrees from neutral)
h. Duration of time sitting comfortably (up to maximum baseline pain level) (minutes)
i. Duration of time standing comfortably (up to maximum baseline pain level) (minutes)
j. Duration and distance walking comfortably (up to maximum baseline pain level) (minutes and meters)
k. Summed VAS pain × days rating
l. Days of impairment (days)
m. Lost workdays (days)
n. Time to exacerbation (days until increase 3/10 pain)
o. Rescue acetaminophen tablets consumed (% and number)
p. NSAID discontinuation (%)
q. Opioid discontinuation (%)