Skip to main content

Table 2 OM in women according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and healthcare-related factors

From: Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

Osteoporosis medication Samplea Population  Proportion with OM   Unadjusted model   Adjusted modelb
HRT not included N % (95% CI) % (95% CI) crude OR (95% CI) adjusted OR (95% CI)
Total 6,836 100.0%   7.8% (7.0-8.6%)     
Sociodemographic factors          
Age group     p=0.0000   p=0.0000   p=0.0000  
40-49 years 1,645 29.3% (27.8-30.8%) 1.5% (0.9-2.5%) 0.27 (0.15-0.51) 0.22 (0.11-0.45)
50-59 years 1,586 25.3% (23.9-26.7%) 5.1% (3.9-6.8%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
60-69 years 1,667 21.5% (20.3-22.7%) 9.2% (7.7-11.0%) 1.87 (1.31-2.67) 1.93 (1.32-2.83)
70-79 years 1,258 15.4% (14.4-16.4%) 17.7% (15.1-20.6%) 3.96 (2.79-5.61) 4.07 (2.75-6.01)
≥80 years 680 8.6% (7.9-9.4%) 15.5% (12.4-19.2%) 3.38 (2.28-5.01) 3.53 (2.27-5.47)
mean age (years)   59.3 (58.9-59.7)       
Nationality     p=0.7348   p=0.6753   p=0.6460  
Swiss citizen 5,565 76.7% (75.3-78.1%) 7.9% (7.1-8.8%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
Swiss dual citizen 721 10.0% (9.2-10.9%) 6.8% (5.0-9.4%) 0.85 (0.59-1.23) 1.09 (0.74-1.61)
others 548 13.3% (12.0-14.6%) 7.5% (5.0-11.0%) 0.94 (0.61-1.45) 1.28 (0.73-2.25)
unknown 2         
Language region     p=0.0452   p=0.0774   p=0.1380  
German 4,179 72.3% (71.5-73.0%) 7.3% (6.4-8.3%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
French 2,034 22.6% (21.9-23.3%) 9.3% (7.9-11.0%) 1.31 (1.03-1.65) 1.22 (0.94-1.59)
Italian 623 5.1% (4.8-5.4%) 7.6% (5.5-10.4%) 1.05 (0.72-1.52) 0.84 (0.57-1.25)
Region     p=0.0041   p=0.0067   p=0.0259  
Lake Geneva 1,235 17.5% (16.9-18.2%) 8.9% (7.2-10.9%) 0.93 (0.68-1.28) 0.91 (0.64-1.30)
Midland 1,791 23.2% (22.5-24.0%) 9.5% (7.8-11.6%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
Northwest 762 14.8% (14.3-15.4%) 9.0% (7.0-11.6%) 0.95 (0.66-1.35) 0.97 (0.66-1.41)
Zurich 891 17.6% (16.9-18.3%) 5.9% (4.4-7.7%) 0.59 (0.41-0.86) 0.61 (0.41-0.92)
East 699 12.7% (12.1-13.2%) 6.0% (4.3-8.3%) 0.61 (0.40-0.92) 0.69 (0.44-1.06)
Central 842 9.3% (8.9-9.7%) 5.2% (3.6-7.5%) 0.52 (0.33-0.81) 0.52 (0.32-0.83)
Ticino 616 4.9% (4.7-5.2%) 7.9% (5.8-10.8%) 0.82 (0.55-1.24) 0.68 (0.44-1.06)
Residential area     p=0.2792   p=0.2796   p=0.3755  
urban 4,814 74.7% (73.5-75.9%) 8.0% (7.2-9.0%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
rural 2,022 25.3% (24.1-26.5%) 7.0% (5.6-8.7%) 0.86 (0.66-1.13) 0.87 (0.65-1.18)
Socioeconomic factors          
Education level     p=0.0038   p=0.0044   p=0.5559  
compulsory 1,562 21.1% (19.9-22.4%) 10.0% (8.2-12.2%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
secondary 4,109 61.3% (59.8-62.8%) 7.5% (6.5-8.5%) 0.72 (0.56-0.93) 0.85 (0.62-1.17)
tertiary 1,161 17.6% (16.5-18.8%) 5.9% (4.6-7.7%) 0.57 (0.40-0.81) 0.94 (0.62-1.45)
unknown 4         
Income per capita     p=0.9508   p=0.9579   p=0.8105  
lower tertile 2,075 32.8% (31.4-34.4%) 7.8% (6.4-9.5%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
middle tertile 2,148 35.4% (33.9-37.0%) 7.5% (6.4-8.9%) 0.96 (0.72-1.28) 0.90 (0.67-1.23)
upper tertile 2,090 31.8% (30.3-33.2%) 7.5% (6.3-9.0%) 0.96 (0.72-1.29) 0.94 (0.67-1.32)
unknown 523         
mean income (CHF per month)   3995 (3918-4072)       
Hospitalisation insurance     p=0.0020   p=0.0026   p=0.0270  
public 3,961 61.5% (60.0-63.0%) 6.7% (5.8-7.7%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
semiprivate 1,795 27.2% (25.9-28.6%) 9.1% (7.7-10.8%) 1.40 (1.10-1.79) 1.40 (1.07-1.84)
private 794 11.3% (10.4-12.3%) 10.3% (8.0-13.2%) 1.61 (1.17-2.22) 1.40 (0.98-1.98)
unknown 286         
Healthcare-related factors and medication          
Bone density measurement     p=0.0000   p=0.0000   p=0.0000  
no 4,670 73.8% (72.5-75.1%) 2.2% (1.8-2.8%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
yes 1,858 26.2% (24.9-27.6%) 22.8% (20.6-25.3%) 13.03 (10.03-16.92) 9.87 (7.37-13.22)
unknown 308         
Number of doctor visits in the past 12 months     p=0.0000   p=0.0000   p=0.0000  
no visits 896 13.5% (12.5-14.7%) 2.9% (1.8-4.7%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
1 visit 1,333 21.6% (20.3-22.9%) 3.8% (2.8-5.2%) 1.31 (0.74-2.33) 1.78 (0.97-3.27)
2-6 visits 3,206 47.4% (45.8-48.9%) 8.4% (7.2-9.7%) 3.02 (1.83-5.01) 3.01 (1.75-5.16)
>6 visits 1,227 17.5% (16.4-18.7%) 13.8% (11.6-16.4%) 5.32 (3.16-8.94) 4.79 (2.74-8.39)
unknown 174         
mean number of visits   4.7 (4.4-5.0)       
Gynaecologist check-up in the last 12 months     p=0.3969   p=0.3971   p=0.0001  
no 3,621 52.5% (50.9-54.0%) 7.8% (6.8-9.0%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
yes 3,017 47.5% (46.0-49.1%) 7.2% (6.2-8.3%) 0.91 (0.73-1.13) 1.61 (1.26-2.06)
unknown 198         
Cancer screening (breast, colon) ever performed     p=0.0002   p=0.0002   p=0.4590  
no 2,854 46.2% (44.7-47.8%) 6.0% (5.0-7.1%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
yes 3,740 53.8% (52.2-55.3%) 9.0% (8.0-10.1%) 1.56 (1.24-1.96) 1.10 (0.85-1.42)
unknown 242         
Health-oriented lifestyle     p=0.3006   p=0.3019   p=0.2900  
no 374 7.2% (6.3-8.1%) 5.9% (3.7-9.2%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
yes 4,796 92.8% (91.9-93.7%) 7.5% (6.7-8.4%) 1.30 (0.79-2.15) 1.36 (0.77-2.42)
unknown 1,666         
Self-assessed health state     p=0.0000   p=0.0000   p=0.0000  
(very) good 5,406 79.9% (78.6-81.1%) 5.9% (5.2-6.6%) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
medium 1,080 15.2% (14.2-16.3%) 14.6% (12.1-17.4%) 2.74 (2.13-3.53) 2.02 (1.52-2.68)
(very) poor 347 4.9% (4.3-5.6%) 17.4% (12.3-24.2%) 3.40 (2.20-5.24) 2.89 (1.64-5.09)
unknown 3         
  1. a respondents, unweighted data.
  2. b controlled for sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors (age, region, residential area, income, hospitalisation insurance type, and education level) except language region was not controlled for region because of collinearity.
  3. Taking prescribed OM in the last 7 days in women older than 40 years living in Switzerland according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors (SHS 2007 data).