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Table 4 Inter-rater reliability and agreement between PTs and experts of visual observations of posture from photographs

From: Inter-rater reliability of the evaluation of muscular chains associated with posture alterations in scoliosis

Body regions Reliability   Agreement
Posture indices PTs Experts* PTs vs experts
  Kappa (%A) Kappa (%A) ICC (95% CI)
Head : Protraction 0.75 (88) 1.00 (100) 0.71 (0.17 – 0.97)
   Lateral bending 0.42 (61) 0.55 (80) 0.97 (0.93 – 1.00)
   Rotation 0.18 (45) 0.55 (80) 0.88 (0.67 – 0.99)
Cervical Lordosis 0.29 (53) 1.00 (100) 0.78 (0.38 – 0.97)
Shoulders : Elevated 0.30 (48) 1.00 (100) 0.85 (0.58 – 0.98)
     Protracted 0.13 (35) 0.00 (60) 0.81 (0.46 – 0.98)
     Rounded 0.03 (27) 0.55 (80) 0.11 (−2.15 – 0.87)
Scapulas : Adducted 0.44 (58) 0.55 (80) 0.96 (0.89 – 1.00)
      Abducted 0.34 (50) 0.00 (60) 0.90 (0.70 – 0.99)
Thoracic Kyphosis 0.39 (50) 0.55 (80) 0.95 (0.85 – 0.99)
Trunk list 0.59 (71) 0.55 (80) 0.26 (−1.10 – 0.91)
Lumbar Lordosis 0.45 (63) 1.00 (100) 0.95 (0.85 – 0.99)
Pelvis : Frontal pelvic tilt 0.20 (47) 0.00 (60) 0.60 (−0.15 – 0.95)
      Anterior tilt 0.25 (44) 1.00 (100) 0.97 (0.92 – 1.00)
      Posterior tilt 0.61 (71) 1.00 (100) 0.97 (0.92 – 1.00)
Knees : Valgus 0.48 (61) 1.00 (100) 0.96 (0.88 – 1.00)
     Varus 0.65 (74) 0.55 (80) 0.99 (0.98 – 1.00)
     Recurvatum 0.55 (66) 0.00 (60) 0.94 (0.82 – 0.99)
     Flexum 0.47 (60) -0.15 (40) 0.98 (0.95 – 1.00)
Feet : < Plantar arch 0.33 (50) 0.55 (80) 0.97 (0.90 – 1.00)
     > Plantar arch 0.72 (79) 1.00 (100) 1.00 (0.99 – 1.00)
     Valgus 0.38 (53) 0.55 (80) 0.98 (0.94 – 1.00)
     Varus 0.63 (72) 1.00 (100) 0.99 (0.96 – 1.00)
  1. Legend: PTs = physical therapists, %A = percentage of agreement, 95% CI = 95% confidence interval, * Results for the experts before the consensus.