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Table 4 Top ten of most harmful (side effects) management strategies (0 = no harm; 10 = maximum harm)

From: The German fibromyalgia consumer reports – a cross-sectional survey

Side effects
Order Management strategy N; Mean harm (0-10)(SD) * High harm (8-10)
N (%) *
1 Strong opioids 133; 5.4 (3.6) 49 (36.8)
2 Local cold therapy 367; 5.1 (4.1) 148 (40.3)
3 Anticonvulsants (Pregabalin, Gabapentin) 198; 5.0 (3.7) 69 (34.9)
4 Tramadol 365; 4.8 (3.6) 110 (30.1)
5 Transdermal opioids 115; 4.7 (3.8) 35 (30.4)
6 Duloxetine 192; 4.5 (3.7) 56 (29.2)
7 Amitriptyline 598; 4.5 (3.5) 157 (26.3)
8 Tramadol combined with paracetamol 82; 4.3(3.7) 20 (24.4)
9 Tilidine 262; 4.3 (3.5) 65 (24.8)
10 Whole body cold therapy 244; 4.1 (4.2) 79 (32.4)
  1. * Note: The discrepancies between the number of persons in the different rows are due to missing items.
  2. The ratings of side effects of all management strategies are available on request.