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Table 2 Results for outcomes of sensory and motor functions in the EMLA and placebo groups

From: Principles of brain plasticity in improving sensorimotor function of the knee and leg in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury: a double-blind randomized exploratory trial

  EMLA group (n = 20) Placebo group (n = 19) EMLA vs. placebo
  Before After   Before After   
  Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean diff (95% CI)(after minus before) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean diff (95% CI)(after minus before) Mean diff (95% CI)(EMLA minus placebo)
Sensory function
SWM med fem cond (grams)†* 0.02 (0.008:0.02) 0.008 (0.008:0.02) p = 0.430 0.008 (0.008:0.02) 0.008 (0.008:0.04) p = 0.134 p = 0.276
SWM lat fem cond (grams)†* 0.008 (0.008:0.02) 0.008 (0.008:0.02) p = 0.442 0.008 (0.008:0.04) 0.008 (0.008:0.03) p = 0.505 p = 0.951
VPT med mall (Volt) 9.2(0.6) 10.3(0.8) 1.1(0.4:1.8) 9.7(0.60) 10.2(0.68) 0.5(−0.1:1.1) 0.6(−0.4:1.5)
VPT med fem cond (Volt) 15.5(1.27) 15.1(1.51) −0.4(−1.9:1.1) 16.0(1.20) 15.5(1.22) −0.6(−2.4:1.3) 0.0(−2.4:2.4)
TDPM (degrees) 2.69(0.33) 2.52(0.27) −0.16(−0.73:0.41) 2.74(0.37) 2.84(0.54) 0.11(−1.0:1.27) −0.28(−1.57:1.01)
Motor function
One-leg hop (cm) 79.2(12.4) 83.3(7.61) 4.0(−0.1:8.2) 90.6(9.9) 100.0(9.7) 9.5(3.6:15.3) −6.4(−13.4:0.6)
Knee ext power (W)* 130.0(12.4) 139.5(14.0) 9.5(1.4:17.7) 156.9(15.4) 158.3(15.5) 1.5(−8.1:11.0) 6.9(−5.5:19.4)
  1. SWM Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, VPT vibration perception threshold, Med mall medial malleolus, Med fem cond medial femoral condyle, Lat fem cond lateral femoral condyle, TDPM threshold for detection of passive motion, ext extension.
  2. † median (quartiles).
  3. * Missing data 1 patient for SWM (placebo group) and 2 patients for knee ext power (1 patient in each group).
  4. Mean and standard error (SE) and mean difference (95% CI) (after minus before) for the tests of sensory function (perception of touch, vibration sense, kinesthesia) and motor function (one-leg hop test, knee extension power) before and after treatment with EMLA/placebo, and mean difference (95% CI) (EMLA minus placebo) between the EMLA and placebo groups (t-test). Median (quartiles) and p-value (Wilcoxon singed rank test, Mann–Whitney test) given for perception of touch (ordinal data).