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Table 1 Characteristics of the subjects

From: Principles of brain plasticity in improving sensorimotor function of the knee and leg in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury: a double-blind randomized exploratory trial

Characteristic EMLA group (n = 20) Placebo group (n = 19)
Age (y)* 25 (5.6) 23 (4.9)
Women (n) 10 9
BMI* 23.7 (3.1) 24.3 (2.9)
ACL injury (ACL reconstruction) (n) 6 (14) 9 (10)
Time after ACL injury or ACL reconstruction (weeks) 54 (17–315) 48 (10–243)
Previous contralateral ACL injury/reconstruction (n) 2 2
Tegner activity level 2 (2–4) 4 (2–6)
KOOS subscales*   
  Pain   82 (10.8) 78 (12.2)
  Symptoms   74 (12.0) 72 (14.3)
  ADL   90 (8.6) 90 (10.4)
  Sport/Rec   47 (20.9) 47 (24.7)
  QOL   41 (12.4) 40 (10.5)
  1. * Mean (SD), † median (quartiles), mean (range), BMI; body mass index.
  2. ACL reconstruction: hamstring tendons graft, n = 23, patellar tendon graft, n = 1.
  3. The Tegner Activity Scale, ranges from 0 to 10, least to hardest strenuous activity for the knee. A Tegner activity level of 2 is equal to recreational sports such as golf, cycling and swimming, an activity level of 4 is equal to recreational sports such as jogging, aerobics, or cross-country skiing and a Tegner activity level of 6 is equal to recreational sports such as tennis or badminton and competitive sports such as orienteering.