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Table 1 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

From: Study Protocol- Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections for Spinal Stenosis (LESS): a double-blind randomized controlled trial of epidural steroid injections for lumbar spinal stenosis among older adults

Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria
Pain in the low back, buttock, and/or lower extremity (pain NRS > 4) with standing, walking and/or spinal extension (buttock/leg > back pain) Cognitive impairment that renders the patient unable to give informed consent or provide accurate data.
Roland-Morris score of at least 7 Fibromyalgia diagnosis, chronic widespread pain, lower extremity amputation, Parkinson's, head injury, stroke, other neurologic conditions.
Mild-moderate-severe lumbar central canal spinal stenosis identified by MRI or CT according to the criteria of Boden et al. [12] Severe vascular, pulmonary or coronary artery disease that limits ambulation including recent myocardial infarction (within the last 6 months).
Lower extremity symptoms consistent with neurogenic claudication Spinal instability requiring surgery.
Must be able to read English and complete the assessment instruments Severe osteoporosis as defined by multiple compression fractures or a fracture at the same level as the stenosis.
Age 50 or older Metastatic cancer.
  Excessive alcohol consumption or evidence of non-prescribed or illegal drug use as determined by the TICS screening questionnaire (1 or more positive answer).
  Possible pregnancy or other condition that precludes the use of fluoroscopy.
  Concordant pain with internal rotation of the hip (or known hip joint pathology).
  Active local or systemic infection.
  Allergy to local anesthetic, steroid or contrast.