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Table 1 Outcome Measures

From: Clinical course, characteristics and prognostic indicators in patients presenting with back and leg pain in primary care. The ATLAS study protocol

Domain Measure Baseline 4 Month 12 Month
Disability* Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) leg pain version (Roland and Morris 1983 [31]; Patrick et al. 1995 [32]) Yes Yes Yes
Pain Intensity* Current, average and 'least' pain in last 2 weeks for both back and leg pain--numerical rating scales (Dunn et al. 2010 [38]) Yes Yes Yes
Employment* Questions on employment status, work absence, sick certification and 'struggling at work' Yes Yes Yes
Risk of poor outcome STarT Back Tool (Hill et al. 2008 [27]) Yes Yes Yes
Leg Pain Above/below the knee; and Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (SBI) (Grovle et al. 2010 [39]) Yes Yes Yes
Episode Duration Current episode for each back and leg pain, plus time since 'pain free month' (Dunn and Croft 2006 [40]) Yes _ _
Pain Location Pain Manikin (Lacey et al. 2005 [41]) Yes _ _
Illness Perceptions Musculoskeletal Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (IPQ-R) Short-Form (adapted from Moss-Morris et al. 2002 [42]) Yes Yes Yes
Self-Efficacy Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) (Nicholas 2007 [43]) Yes Yes Yes
General Health SF-1 (Ware 2000); and EQ5D (EuroQol Group 1990 [44]) Yes Yes Yes
Change Global Assessment of Change--single question No Yes Yes
Productivity Performance at work--single numerical rating scale Yes Yes Yes
Health Care Utilisation Health Care Utilisation Questions No Yes Yes
Neuropathic Pain S-LANSS (Bennett et al. 2005 [45]) Yes Yes Yes
Work Load Measure of physical work load (adapted from Miranda et al. 2002 [10]) Yes _ _
Co-morbidity Co-morbid health conditions & symptoms Yes _ _
Pain Trajectory Single question (based on Dunn et al. 2006 [40]) Yes _ Yes
Anxiety and Depression Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (Zigmond and Snaith 1983 [46]) Yes _ Yes
Satisfaction with Care Single question _ Yes _
Smoking Self-report questions Yes _ _
Height/Weight Measured at Clinic Assessment Yes _ _
  1. *Disability, pain and work absence will be collected monthly (brief questionnaires will be used on months when full outcomes are not being collected)