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Table 2 Results of the torque removal tests are shown as mean values and standard deviations in Nmm.

From: Osseointegration and biocompatibility of different metal implants - a comparative experimental investigation in sheep

Type of screw Removal Torque in Nmm std. dev.
± in Nmm
N
PTST 270.9 87.3 9
TANNEW 259.9 100.1 9
CCZTC 246.6 96.9 9
CCTC 245.6 91.1 8
TANST 234.0 55.8 9
Steel 155.8 83.6 9
CC 130.1 45.8 7
  1. Note that Steel and cobalt-chrome have the lowest values compared to all other titanium or zirconium based implants. Statistically significant differences were found only for chrome cobalt compared to pure titanium screws (p = 0.031) (N = number of screws tested per group)